CRAZY ABOUT BATS!

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ligiah

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CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« on: January 30, 2008, 07:58:40 PM »
THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES DIVERSITY OF BATS IN SELECTED BARANGAYS WITHIN THE RAJAH SIKATUNA PROTECTED LANDSCAPE IN THE PROVINCE OF BOHOL.
(Abstract and Chapter 1)

Abstract

This study was conducted as an attempt to provide additional information about the species of bats present in the province of Bohol. It specifically aimed to determine the relative abundance and species diversity of bats in selected barangays within the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape (RSPL). The different sampling sites were barangays Anonang and Lantang, Valencia, Bohol and Bugang Sur, Bilar, Bohol. In terms of the degree of disrturbance, these sites were classified as slightly to severely disturbed due to the presence of man-made trails, agricultural areas and even human dwellings. The forest cover of the sites was also determined. Mist netting was used in capturing bat species in the different sampling sites. Harp traps were also used as supplements to capture insect bats.

A total of 14 species in 9 genera and 4 families of bats were captured. Cynopterus brachyotis (common short-nosed fruit bat) had the highest relative abundance with 58.69% based on the total number of individuals captured in all sites, since it is capable of adapting to different environments. Ptenochirus jagori (musky fruit bat) and Rousettus amplexicaudatus (common rousette), respectively came next in terms of relative abundance. Anonang has the highest species diversity at 0.67, followed by Lantang with 0.54 and Bugang Sur with 0.44. The good forest cover in all areas is one great reason of such diversity. The overall species diversity is relatively high at 0.59. Lantang is the highest in terms of species endemism with 45.5%. This is because Lantang is the least disturbed among the three sites. This study suggests that the forests of the sampling sites are still capable of supporting diverse bat species. However, if these forest areas are not conserved and are further disturbed, there will be possibity for these bat populations to decline.

Nature and Importance of the Study

Bats constitute one of the largest adn most widely distributed groups of mammals in the world. They are unique among mammals in their mastery of true flight, which is a fundamental evolutionary step that opened the way to an entirely new and largely unoccupied part of the environment at least 55 million years ago (Hill and Smith, 1985). Another distinctive characteristic of most bats is their ability to navigate with echolocation. Today, there are 1,111 different species of bats in the whole world. This is almost half the number of species  of mammals. Of this number, 73 are found in the Philippines, and 26 are in Bohol (Pamaong, personal communication, 2005).

Bats are animals that humans usually take for granted, Their importance to the environment has not been emphasized, and people have been misinformed by their true nature and value. They were also a constant subject of bad superstitions and folklores. Some species feed on commercial fruits in orchards and because of this they are hunted and killed, which is one of the causes in the decline of bat population. In reality, bats are harmless when not provoked.

Most of Bohol's forest lies in Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape (RSPL). Study and assessment done in the late 70's showed that a major portion of the then Rajah Sikatuna National Park (now RSPL) was comprised of natural forest, with several natural and scenic attributes which are considered potentials for eco-tourism, educational and scientific use (Soil and Water Conservation Foundation Incorporated 2005, unpublished). However, since 2000, there were only a few scientific studies carried out including those focusing on bats (Pamaong 2006, pers.comm.). This urged the researchers to conduct a study in order to provide additional information about the species of bats present in the province particularly within the RSPL. Determining the relative abundance of the captured species of bats will help find out whether a particular species is common in the area or not. This study will be essential for providing a basis in the conservation of bats in the RSPL or Bohol in general.

The study attempts to provide additional information on the relative abundance and species diversity of bats particularly in the three barangays within the RSPL. This study will also provide baseline information on the different species of bats living in the study area. Government agencies as well as Non-government organizations can use the information generated from this study as a basis for future surveys and conservation efforts on bats.


Objectives:

Generally, this study aimed to determine the relative abundance and species diversity of bats in three barangays within RSPL. Specifically, this study aimed to obtain the following:

1. Identify the captured bats if possible to the species level,
2. Compare the relative abundance and species diversity of bats in all the study areas,
3. Describe the habitat where the bats were captured in terms of vegetation, extent of the forest cover, elevation and degree of disturbance, and
4. Identify the endemic species in the area.

Scope and LImitations

The study was conducted in barangays within the Rajah SIkatuna Protected Landscape (RSPL) that was not yet surveyed by the SOil and WAter Conservation Foundation Inc. (SWCFI). Three barangays were chosen and the study was carried out from October to November 2005. The sampling period lasted for at least one week for each site. Sampling sites were selected based on the extent of forest cover secondarily on the vegetation, elevation and degree of disturbance.

This study focused primarily on the determination and comparison of the species diversity and relative abundance of bats in the three barangays. Bats were identified if possible to the species level. Bat endemism and species richness were also determined. DUe to time constraints and lack of facilities, other aspects related to the biology of bats such as behavior and reproduction were no longer included in the study.




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ligiah

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Reply: crazy about bats!
« Reply #1 on: January 30, 2008, 08:29:29 PM »
These are the bats identified in the study.... marvel in their beauty!




Ptenochirus jagori



Hipposideros diadema



Hipposideros ater'



Hipposiders obscurus



Rousettus amplexicaudatus



Macroglossus minimus



Eonycteris robusta



Hipposideros pygmaeus



Emballonura alecto



Cynopterus brachyotis



Haplonycteris fischeri



Eonycteris spelaea



Rinolophus virgo



Rinolophus arcuatus


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ligiah

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Reply: crazy about bats!
« Reply #2 on: January 30, 2008, 08:31:31 PM »
I'm gonna take my cross and carry it... heck! I'm even gonna dance while i'm doing it!

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hazel

Reply: crazy about bats!
« Reply #3 on: January 30, 2008, 08:31:42 PM »

Gai, kalouy sa bat, imong gi inat para lang ma picture-an.

How long did you stay in RSPL?

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ligiah

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Reply: crazy about bats!
« Reply #4 on: January 30, 2008, 08:33:16 PM »
hahaha... mao lagi... pero no choice man... kay unsaon man wala mi proof nga among gikukabildo ang bats!!!! hehehe!

bitaw we stayed for a total of one month... 10 to 12 days for each site gyud...

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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #5 on: January 31, 2008, 03:40:57 AM »
Gai,

I enjoyed reading the abstract, the samples of P. jagori as well as R. amplexicaudatus truly manifests species deviation throughout the island as you documented. I'm more interested if the same species exist in neighboring Cebu and can still mate with the existing species found in Bohol, or perhaps species deviation occurred as well thereby forcing the once-sister species to evolve to a totally different one.

Very interesting study, Gai. :)

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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #6 on: January 31, 2008, 03:46:58 AM »

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Bambi

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #7 on: January 31, 2008, 03:53:26 AM »
Thanks Ligiah for posting.....very interesting and informative.

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Best regards
Bambi

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ligiah

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #8 on: January 31, 2008, 04:07:21 AM »
Gai,

I enjoyed reading the abstract, the samples of P. jagori as well as R. amplexicaudatus truly manifests species deviation throughout the island as you documented. I'm more interested if the same species exist in neighboring Cebu and can still mate with the existing species found in Bohol, or perhaps species deviation occurred as well thereby forcing the once-sister species to evolve to a totally different one.

Very interesting study, Gai. :)



thanks Bran... yeah it would be quite interesting to study that aspect of bats... maybe i will do that in another study... i am very interested in working with bats again in the future!

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ligiah

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #9 on: January 31, 2008, 04:09:44 AM »
Talk about having a bat day. hahahaha
:P

yeah... we retrieved the bats 3 times everyday... at dawn (at about 4 to 6 am)... Early evening, about 5 to 7 and late at night... at 10 to 12... quite hard work but it was fun. i just love being on the field.

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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #10 on: January 31, 2008, 04:14:03 AM »
Its always very endearing to see a another fanatical scientist in these boards, Gai. The most important thing the Philippine government needs to consider is the preservation of our rich and wild fauna, as you have specifically demonstrated to us, just one example of the richness in species there is in one island. I can only imagine how many there are in the entire archipelago.

One thing is for sure, environmental preservation is a must in the Philippines. For scientists to say that the Philippines is rich in native fauna is truly and understatement.

Keep up the good work, Gai. I'm hungry for more to read.

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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #11 on: January 31, 2008, 04:15:46 AM »
yeah... we retrieved the bats 3 times everyday... at dawn (at about 4 to 6 am)... Early evening, about 5 to 7 and late at night... at 10 to 12... quite hard work but it was fun. i just love being on the field.

hahaha, i can tell you're truly the ecological biologist. Gai, how long was the study period for diay?
And btw, who is the lady in the picture collecting the bat? A friend of yours?

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ligiah

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #12 on: January 31, 2008, 04:21:29 AM »
Its always very endearing to see a another fanatical scientist in these boards, Gai. The most important thing the Philippine government needs to consider is the preservation of our rich and wild fauna, as you have specifically demonstrated to us, just one example of the richness in species there is in one island. I can only imagine how many there are in the entire archipelago.

One thing is for sure, environmental preservation is a must in the Philippines. For scientists to say that the Philippines is rich in native fauna is truly and understatement.

Keep up the good work, Gai. I'm hungry for more to read.


haha... 'hungry for more to read' .. that was quite a phrase... i still have to find time to give important excerpts from my discussions and all the other parts... i am quite busy these days... sige lang basta hopefully i will find the time soon and i can feed your hunger (LOL!)

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ligiah

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #13 on: January 31, 2008, 04:23:00 AM »
hahaha, i can tell you're truly the ecological biologist. Gai, how long was the study period for diay?
And btw, who is the lady in the picture collecting the bat? A friend of yours?

the sampling lasted for more than a month... about 10 to 12 days for each site... we had to reach a certain number of net nights for a sampling in an area to be over...

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ligiah

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #14 on: January 31, 2008, 04:23:37 AM »
hahaha, i can tell you're truly the ecological biologist. Gai, how long was the study period for diay?
And btw, who is the lady in the picture collecting the bat? A friend of yours?

and by the way... lahi ra diay akong nawng sauna? ako man na Bran nag retrieve ug bat!!! ;D

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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #15 on: January 31, 2008, 04:35:11 AM »

haha... 'hungry for more to read' .. that was quite a phrase... i still have to find time to give important excerpts from my discussions and all the other parts... i am quite busy these days... sige lang basta hopefully i will find the time soon and i can feed your hunger (LOL!)

LOL, you like my term eh? bitaw no, i just coined that on the spot jud.
Sige, Gai, whenever you are ready to feed us more information, we'll be waiting.

Salamat kaayo, Prof. Gai.



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Lorenzo

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Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #16 on: January 31, 2008, 04:36:16 AM »
and by the way... lahi ra diay akong nawng sauna? ako man na Bran nag retrieve ug bat!!! ;D
that was you diay? hahaha i thought it was you, but i just wanted to make sure, you look so serious and determined in that photo. Biologist jud ka, Gai.

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hazel

Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #17 on: January 31, 2008, 04:37:01 AM »

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Lorenzo

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hazel

Reply: CRAZY ABOUT BATS!
« Reply #19 on: January 31, 2008, 04:39:58 AM »
Hi Hazel! Hows your day?

Im fine, Dong. Busy reading about bats- abats! :P hehehe

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