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Sultan Jamal ul-Azam, Ruler of Sulu and North Borneo
« on: August 29, 2009, 11:46:03 AM »
Sultan%20Jamalul%20Ahlam%20Kiram%202%20Spaniards%201886 - Sultan Jamal ul-Azam, Ruler of Sulu and North Borneo - Philippine Photo Gallery
Sultan Jamal ul-Azam, ruler of Sulu and North Borneo/ Sabah from 1862 to 1881, receiving a French official delegation. The chief qadi, an Afghan, sits behind the Sultan. Source: J. Montano, Voyage aux Philippines et en Malaisie (Paris, 1886).

The western part of Mindanao and the neighbouring islands were ruled by the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao but the former was more compact and better organized.

When the Philippine-American War broke out, the US had to concentrate its limited forces in the north. To hold at bay Moro resistance to its colonization of the Sulu Archipelago, the US, represented by Brig. Gen. John C. Bates, forged a treaty with Sulu Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram, known as the Bates Treaty.

The Spanish Treaty of Peace with the Sulu sultanate had allowed Spain to set up a small garrison on Siasi Island and in the town of Jolo. After their defeat by the U.S., the Spaniards turned over the Siasi garrison to the Sultan.

It was not until May 19, 1899 that the U.S. sent troops to take over the Spanish fort in Jolo. The Americans had not been able to get troops to Jolo sooner because they could not afford to send any troops outside the Luzon area. (Serious Moro resistance commenced in 1903).

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