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Lorenzo

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Doctoral paper peer-review thread
« on: September 03, 2013, 08:25:03 AM »
Hi fellows,

I need all your help, and that help can be manifested through points of view, recommendations in regards to rough draft proceedings. I'm currently finishing up my 1st year of the Ph.D program, which is being completed in conjunction while I am working on Medicine.

So what does this mean, and what am I asking of you?

I'm asking that if any of you (should you wish to, of course) would be kind enough to read over some papers and point to me some recommendations to fix run ons, syntax formation, and even minor mistakes such as grammatical errors. I welcome and endorse all kinds. For those that wish to help, of course.

I'm starting my 2nd academic year of my Ph.D program this October 2013. The program will be about 4 years long (depending on the speed and successful turnout of my doctoral dissertation).

So yes, I'm going to keep this thread as my paper editing thread. Much advanced thanks for those who will help me in this process.

Thank You.
I am fondly yours,
Albrando Lorenzo Salvo Lucino Jr.
A.K.A "Lorenzo"



Linkback: https://tubagbohol.mikeligalig.com/index.php?topic=75194.0

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Re: Doctoral paper peer-review thread
« Reply #1 on: September 03, 2013, 08:31:18 AM »
I am currently working on this paper , the subject matter is focused on Genetic Testing in the working field. The ethical, psychological, and health-related considerations were mentioned in the paper.

I welcome recommendations directly through this thread or if you wish to remain anonymous, you may send me recommendations/points of view through PM.

Again, thank you so much. :)

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« Reply #2 on: September 03, 2013, 08:37:42 AM »
Title: Genetic Testing in the Workplace
Author: Albrando Lorenzo Lucino Jr, Ph.D-C



In 2008, then-President George W. Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. This law was enacted as a measure to prevent health insurance organizations to use patients’ genetic background and genetic information as the basis for decision making in either the approval or disapproval of patient health coverage. The law specifically provides protection from health organizations, particularly health insurance providers from denying coverage for Americans who are otherwise healthy, but may have a family history of certain health risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, certain types of cancers, cardiac deficits and even endocrinal disorders (Berks, 2008; Varner, 2011). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act also makes special clauses that protect applicants and employees from decisions that employers make based on an employee’s genetic background and testing results (Varner, 2011).


   Prior to the 2008 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act that was signed into law by President George W. Bush, there were laws that addressed the issues of genetic information being used in an unprofessional and unethical manner by employers as well as health insurance agencies. Some of these laws included the 1995 Genetic Privacy and Nondiscrimination Act, the 1996 Genetic Fairness Act, the 1995 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination in Health Insurance Act and the 1996 Genetic Confidentiality and Nondiscrimination Act (Brandt-Rauf, Brandt-Rauf, Gershon, Yongliang and Brandt-Rauf, 2011). The reasons why these laws and regulations were passed was due to a historical precedent where in which employers utilized health information to shape their decisions in hiring and firing workers. In an article written by Brand-Rauf et al (2011), the implementation of new genetic testing at work may better the health and safety of workers, but may also raise some potent social , legal and ethical issues that may affect not only employees but also the employers. Brandt-Rauf et al (2011) also mentioned that prejudice against individuals with certain health risks has been documented early in the 20th century. There was a geneticist by the name of J.B.S Haldane, who in 1938, concocted an idea to bar individuals who had congenital predisposition to potters’ bronchitis from entering the pottery industry. By doing so, this would prevent cases of individuals developing potters’ bronchitis and thus prevent the necessity of giving severance pay for workers who developed such a terminal disease. It should be noted that during the 1950s when technology was developed to analyze enzymatic genetic variants to test for hemolytic reaction in screen for particular diseases was it being used in the work place. As  a result of this, individuals with health disorders in the testing or showed a family history were being rejected from positions whilst those with no history were chosen (Brandt-Rauf et al, 2011). This is why it is important to understand why these laws were enacted, as a means to protect workers and also to protect employers from committing abuses.

 
   Genetic testing and its prevalence in the work place has been an issue of concern. The past several years have observed many attempts to seen the scope and depth of genetics being used in industry (Andrews and Zuiker, 2003). In a survey that was conducted in 1982 by the Congressional Office of Technological Assessment, out of the 366 companies that responded to a survey, only 5% of them admitted to using genetic testing as the basis to identify susceptibility of employees as well as using said information for hiring or firing of said employees. Since then, however, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of genetic testing in work places. There was a survey that was conducted in 199 and about 1,054 companies responded, of which about 16.7% of them admitted to using genetic testing procedures to shape their decisions on employee retention and layoffs (Brandt-Rauf et al, 2011). One can observe that these surveys function as a window to the greater body that is the American industry and the millions of Americans who are employed by said companies. The passing of the 2008 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act answers these issues by making it illegal for employers to use genetic testing results on employees for key decision making.


   One has to understand the psychological effects of the use of genetic testing results and revealing this not only to aforementioned operational managers within that said organization, but also to the employee being tested. This was addressed in an article written by Andersson, Juth, Petersen, Graff and Edberg (2013), which aimed to describe the many experiences that employees have during presymptomatic gene testing for the nefarious genetic disease known as Huntington ’s disease. Huntington’s disease, otherwise known as Huntington’s chorea,  is a neurodegenerative disorder with onset usually taking course in the third of fourth decade of life. This disease is characterized by chorea and dementia; pathologically, there is bilateral marked atrophy of the putamen and the head of the caudate nuclease. Autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance, caused by mutation associated with trinucleotide repeat expansion in the Huntington gene, which is located on chromosome 4p (Petersen et al, 2013). The results of the study showed that there was a fusion of ethical and medical aspects in undergoing genetic testing for Huntington’s disease for employees.


Genetic testing and the revelation of results gave rise to anxiety for employees, particularly significant feelings of despair and loss of hope. Despite the planning benefits of presymptomatic testing, employers have to understand the psychological and ethical effects of taking genetic testing and revealing said testing to employees. One also has to understand the effects such revelation has on employers (Huys, Berthels, Matthijs and Overwalle, 2009). Upon knowing that a loyal worker has been diagnosed positive for Huntington’s disease , and knowing the neurodegenerative effects this disease will have on the employee, this would necessitate the company’s decision to layoff said employee or enact policy that might induce the employee to resign, particularly decrease said employee’s hours (Petersen et al, 2013).


Employees are selected through a selective process, many having to go through batteries, which roots out those who are less credible for those who have certain characteristics that might work within a working environment. As a human resource specialist, one has to take into consideration the concept of base rate, which reflects the percentage of current employees who are successful on the job. In part, this percentage reflects the quality of the previous selection battery and provides a baseline against which the new selection battery can be compared (Levy, 2013). Fortunately for us we have , through the auspices of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures. This guide serves as a technical guide for those who work in the field of employee selection, with the caveat that the principles were not intended to be perceived as legal guidelines (Levy, 2013). As such, one has to understand that one cannot use genetic testing as a means to select candidates because that is a violation of ethical policy, as well as is contrary to proper hiring and selection protocol as mentioned by Levy (2013).

 
It will be evident that, as mentioned earlier in this paper, that ethical considerations will be manifested in the analysis of genetic testing in the workplace. In the attempt of the conception of certain health professionals in regards to the use of genetic testing, Powell-Young and Spruill (2013) noted that African-American nurses voiced concerns that there would be a possibility of discriminative genetic information use  and that the minority participation of said genetic testing should be endorsed so as to provide a greater understanding of differences in health disease manifestation and predisposition. The relevance of the clinical research shows that genetic testing will provide heightened opportunity to better the delivery of health care for disadvantaged minority groups; at the same time the opinion of African-American nurses believe that information could be used by health organizations to focus health care on certain groups of people that don’t have a high proclivity for health disorders, particularly cardiac deficits (Powell-Young and Spruill, 2013). This is interesting to note because African-American populations have a high risk for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac-related pathologies such as myocardial infaction and congestive heart failure as compared to other ethnic groups (Berk, 2008).


Any health information that is gained through genetic testing should be confidential and should not be used to layoff an individual. On contrary, health information gathered through genetic testing should be utilized to provide much needed internal  health specialists to be made readily available for employees should they need health counseling. In addition, as a health specialist working in the human resources department of a large hospital setting, I would be compelled to encourage the employer to provide medical leave for the employee to deal with this medical problem. President Clinton promulgated the Family and Medical Leave Act back in 1993 (Levy, 2013). This law allowed eligible employees to take job-protected, unpaid leave for up to 12 weeks owing to family-related issues such as birth of a child, the serious health condition of a family member, or one’s own serious health condition. These health conditions include illness, injury, impairment, or physical and mental conditions (Levy, 2013). By doing this, we foster a work environment that invests on the employees. By doing this, we increase confidence on the employees that the organization cares for them, and thus by doing so can increase worker to worker interoperability, satisfaction and efficiency.



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Re: Doctoral paper peer-review thread
« Reply #3 on: September 03, 2013, 10:05:34 AM »
go, go, go, lorenz! :)
Republic Act 8485 (Animal Welfare Act of 1998, Philippines), as amended and strengthened by House  Bill 6893 of 2013--- violation means a maximum of P250,000 fine with a corresponding three-year jail term and a minimum of P30,000 fine and six months imprisonment

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Re: Doctoral paper peer-review thread
« Reply #4 on: September 03, 2013, 10:37:46 AM »
am going on a slow and steady pace, Tita. please make editions palihug! please help me on editions. daghang na daghang salamat!


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Re: Doctoral paper peer-review thread
« Reply #5 on: September 03, 2013, 10:41:23 AM »
all the time, toto.  i will also go at it slowly... you can be sure i'll see to it that i'll find the time. 

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« Reply #6 on: September 03, 2013, 10:42:27 AM »
thank you so much Tita. sending you my big hug! :-*  :-*

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« Reply #7 on: September 03, 2013, 10:47:41 AM »
just to warn you... my first impulse at editing is to cut long paragraphs to pieces in keeping with the usual rules.  one's mind when one writes simply flows with ideas.  unfortunately, readers' minds don't flow the same way.  so the writer's product had to be redesigned with the reader's easy understanding in mind.

OT: the best writers submit themselves to editing.  t.s. eliot's editor was ezra pound.  guess who we know more about, now...

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« Reply #8 on: September 03, 2013, 10:48:10 AM »

hugs too.  and meows from all my cats! :)

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« Reply #9 on: September 16, 2013, 03:21:36 AM »
Tita,

Thank You so much for your editing help along the way. I submitted the final version last week, and i just got confirmation of my grade for the class. For the paper, i scored a 242.31/250, or around a 96.9%. Thank You !!!

For my course, which ended on Friday, my overall score was a 92.46%. Thank You , so much for reviewing the content and making the necessary revisions.

Ingon ahoang Professor nako, "Lorenzo, your final draft was very well written. Good job on grammatical editions."

I told him that I have a friend who is a "professional editor".

Ning ngisi si Dr. Shelton.

---

Tita, this October, my next class "Doctoral Leadership" will mark my 2nd academic year in my Ph.D program. Your editions and proof reading has been truly invaluable to me. Thank You.


;D



Kindly,
I remain,
Bran Lorenzo

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« Reply #10 on: October 12, 2013, 02:17:25 AM »
The following is my rough draft of my first paper for this course.









Title: Are Leaders Born or Made?



Leaders are expected to provide the decision-making skills for an organization, either it be a financial corporation or a nation state, and with this requires proper training as well as experience in the working level. There are individuals who claim that leaders are born with these effective leadership skills. It is in my belief that a leader is not born, but is made and this is done through training, education, the role of environment is critical (Lussier and Achua, 2013). Leadership skills  can be acquired through proper learning and training , which will allow potential leaders to flourish  within their organization. Lussier and Achua (2013) specify that leadership requires certain traits , which include influence, organizational objective, charge,  as well as people to people skills. Influence is one’s ability to communicate one’s ideas to other people and thus by doing so, allowing the target audience to accept such ideas.


Essential to influence is one’s communication skills (Lussier and Achua, 2013). A leader should also have in mind the objectives of the organization, which allow these individuals to influence followers to focus not on personal interests, but on the interest of the organization to which they belong. One notices the interrelationship between leadership influence and objective ascertainment, especially in the pronounced acquisition of goals in an ethical and manner that benefits not only the organization, but also the needs of the players involved in said organization. Effective leadership depends on the leader’s ability to adapt to any situation and critical to this is one’s ability to react to change in such a way that interpersonal skills allows one to use one’s influence and communication technique to influence followers to identify threats to success, the effective policies that can answer said threats (Lussier and Achua, 2013). One way to gain the allegiance of followers requires transformational leadership (Carpenter, Fusfeld and Gritzo, 2010), which is when the leader recognizes an existing need or demand of a potential follower. These leaders identify potential motives in followers, seek the satisfaction of higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower (McManus, 2006)


A man who exemplifies astute transformational leadership in the last 50 years is Mr. Nelson Mandela. Mandela was born in 1918 and lived, for the most of his life, under the apartheid system of South Africa, which effectively segregated the white South Africans from the black South Africans. Mandela was involved in political rallies that targeted the unfair policies of colonial South Africa and noted the violation of civil rights the black South Africans had. He was imprisoned to life sentence after he was linked with the anti-government attacks in 1962 and thus served over 27 years in prison (Morodi, 2011). Mandela, through his adoption of non-violence policies and through his public speaking throughout the country , he epitomized his social role, which refers to the expected behaviors and attitudes that come with one’s position in society (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008). Considering the fact that Mandela was a black South African who experienced social and environmental limitations in the country of his birth, this led to his development of understanding of the issues that affected the welfare of the majority of the people, the black South Africans. Had Mandela been born a white South African, he would not have experienced the discrimination that Apartheid enacted, and the leadership qualities he had developed as a black South African, namely, his interpersonal skills in communicating ideas with the local community, research on civil rights, probably would not have developed as astutely (Morodi, 2011).


Mandela is revered as a model leader in South Africa and throughout the world due to certain traits that are to be vied for. These traits include his forgiveness, his compassion and his humility in regards to the apartheid program and to the government leaders who were responsible for implementing apartheid on the whole of South Africa (O’Fallon, 2012). One unique aspect that Mandela implemented during his presidency was Ubuntu, which is a word that means forgiveness. It is a concept in the Zulu language where in which an individual will forgive the offenses of one who committed a crime for the sake of unity of a tribe, it is interesting that when he took power as president, instead of sacking the politicians who controlled government during apartheid years, he asked for the entire country to implement Ubuntu (O’Fallon, 2012). This was tactic that he utilized as unity device, by instituting Ubuntu, a general healing occurred in South Africa where both white and black South Africans were able to realize the violations of human rights during the apartheid years and work together in the development of the future of a multicultural post-apartheid South Africa (Morodi, 2011).


When one studies the organizational management skills of Mr. Mandela, it is akin to how college faculty chairs operate in a collegiate setting. When a college faculty chair is selected, he is selected by the entire faculty and lead through open communication with each member, identify weaknesses and collaborate in creating a solution either it be an academic, personal, or research issue (Sirkis, 2011). Mandela’s implementation of Ubuntu allowed the financial institutions, which were primarily run by white South Africans, to be unaffected by the transition of post-Apartheid South Africa. By collaborating with different segments of society, despite color, Mandela literally transformed the country from  a segregated nation to one that was multicultural, accepting, and unified (Grover and Lynn, 2012). A literal example of transformational leadership (McManus, 2006).


The leadership skills of Mandela included decision making skills, intrapersonal skills as well as technical skills. These skills were all created and developed through his experience in life. His education influenced the development of his legal and political skills, considering that he graduated from law school. His interpersonal and intrapersonal skills were developed by communicating at the grass roots level in villages, towns, cities to universities. He was not born with such skills, but the skills were developed due to his education, situation in life as a black South African civil rights worker looking to find solutions to the underlying discrimination of the day (Morodi, 2011). The environment in which Nelson Mandela lived in shaped the man who he became, and the leader of the Republic of South Africa that he is today.









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« Reply #11 on: October 12, 2013, 02:22:11 AM »
Title: Power and Influence in Leadership: Mao Zedong as case study


Lussier and Achua (2013) define power as the leader’s potential to influence others. Because power is the potential to influence, a leader does not necessarily have to use power to influence individuals. It should be noted that people usually are influenced by the perceptions of power rather than the actual use of power that influence people. There are different types of power and they include Legitimate Power, Coercive Power, Referent Power, Expert Power and Information Power (Lussier and Achua, 2013)


Legitimate power is based on the individual’s power, given by the organization and it is also called the legitimization of influencing tactic. An example of this are when managers assign work to workers, when generals order certain divisions to attack, or teachers to award grades to students (Lussier and Achua, 2013). Coercive power deals with punishment and withholding of certain rewards to influence compliance to the leader, Referent power deals with the user’s personal relationship with others. One can say that referent power is influential for certain leaders to network with others to meet a certain agenda. Expert power is based on the user’s skill and knowledge. One can say that being an expert makes other people dependent on you. Informational power is a type of power that is based on a user’s data desired by others, it involves access to vital information and control over its distribution to others (Lussier and Achua, 2013).


When I think of a certain historical leader who wielded great clout over an entire nation, and influenced the direction of that country’s growth, the name of Mao Zedong comes to mind. Mao Zedong was brought up in China during a time if great upheaval and political instability due to the fading power and influence of the centuries old Qing Dynasty of Imperial China. Mao, who was born as part of the working class in Hunan region of China, learned of the concept of Socialism when he studied in Peking. It was there where he became involved in the communist ideology and became influential in the founding of the Chinese Communist Party (Knight, 2002). When he assumed the leadership of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, he had so much clout so as to turn China into a nation, which had been a former glorious nation in terms of cultural and academic promise centuries prior, into a regional player. He utilized legitimate power to select certain party officials to run the government , especially in education directives and informational control (Knight, 2002). One can say that by controlling the media and information distributed to the masses, he also utilized informational power, which is the involvement of access to vital information and control over its distribution to others (Lussier and Achua, 2013).


Mao Zedong was also brilliant in that he, unlike his predecessors, believed that cyclic revolutions was a healthy and natural phenomenon for a nation state. He held to the premise that revolutions allow the participation of the youth in national identity and community. This is the reason why he endorsed the Cultural Revolution in the 1970’s, which was an attempt of the new regime to move away from the old superstitious and religious culture of China, and towards one that was more party-focused and socialist-focused (Schoenhals, 2007). In the prosecution of the Cultural Revolution, which led to the deaths of many individuals, Mao utilized his coercive power as well as well as legitimate power. To maintain legitimacy, he utilized his referent power to maintain personal relationships with leaders in the party, and also to maintain a communication channel with the Soviets (Stalin’s Dialogue, 1991).



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