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Lorenzo

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What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« on: January 30, 2013, 12:58:54 PM »
What are the levels of a doctoral paper?

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #1 on: January 30, 2013, 12:59:26 PM »
1st level: Axiologic/Epistemic Level.

This is the underlying level of basic world
hypotheses that form the foundation for content and method within a
field of inquiry. Epistemology refers to the study of the nature of knowledge,
whereas axiology refers to the study of ethics, values, and aesthetics.
Examples of constructs at this level include the explanatory principle of
cause and effect and the notion of open systems.

Lorenzo

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #2 on: January 30, 2013, 01:00:09 PM »
2nd Level: Theoretical Level.

This is the level of models and theories. Theories are
premises to account for data, such as the FIRO theory of interpersonal
behavior in groups (Schutz, 1966) or the differential association theory in
the study of crime (Sutherland, 1924). The term model has been used in
many, often confusing ways in the social sciences. Here it refers to a
higher order theory, that is, a representational system at a higher level of
abstraction that can inform and be informed by alternative theories (close
to the framework or worldview that helps guide researchers and has been
identified as a “paradigm” by Thomas Kuhn [1962]). Thus, psychoanalysis
could be seen as a model, a wide lens with which to view and understand
the mysteries of human behavior. Each model carries with it certain
sets of assumptions. In the case of psychoanalysis, these assumptions
include the unifying importance of causal determinism and unconscious
motivation as core constructs. Note that this use of the term model differs
somewhat from the presentation of working models in Chapter 2.

Lorenzo

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #3 on: January 30, 2013, 01:01:13 PM »
3rd Level: Empirical Level.

 In the field of epistemology, empiricism refers to a
commitment to obtaining knowledge through sense experience (literally,
“based on experience” in Greek). Empiricism is frequently contrasted
with rationalism, which refers to knowledge derived purely through
thought and reason, and to more natural philosophical and religious
traditions of reaching conclusions. In the present context, the empirical
level includes hypotheses and methods and data of scientific research.
Hypotheses are tentative answers to questions, generally based on theory.

The primary role of research within this three-level schema is to link the
theoretical and the empirical. Theories need the support of data to remain
viable, whereas methods carry assumptions that are theoretical in nature.
Note that research findings do not contribute directly to the axiologic/
epistemic level or even to basic models. Those levels reflect fundamental
value commitments and personal preferences that are rarely modified on
the basis of additional data, especially the kind of data generated by scholarly
research.

Lorenzo

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #4 on: January 30, 2013, 01:01:24 PM »
8)

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #5 on: January 30, 2013, 01:49:21 PM »
as devastating as a pacquiao punch.  but as in any undertaking, the trick is to tackle this singly, methodically, one step at a time, and eureka!  you know you'll be surprised at what you've written.  aim for summa cum laude, lorenz, but hold your head up high for a magna, again!
Republic Act 8485 (Animal Welfare Act of 1998, Philippines), as amended and strengthened by House  Bill 6893 of 2013--- violation means a maximum of P250,000 fine with a corresponding three-year jail term and a minimum of P30,000 fine and six months imprisonment

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Re: What are the levels of doctoral writing?
« Reply #6 on: January 30, 2013, 02:25:44 PM »
if i can finish my ph.d even as cum laud, i would be happy. i dont think i'm summa quality, isles. honest lang ko.



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