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Lorenzo

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The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« on: January 05, 2009, 09:23:47 AM »
Members of the Royal Spanish Army, and the Filipino Guardia Civil.

Great Pictures!

The following pictures were taken by the Spanish Army, showing the Filipinos in service of His Royal Spanish Majesty's Army in the Philippines. Circa 1880s.


unifromes2 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino Infantrymen---of the Guardia Civil

Uniformes1 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Spanish-Filipino Soldiers. Members of the Royal Spanish Infantry

unifromes3 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino Officers in service of the Royal Spanish Army.

unifromes5 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino Sailors in service of the Royal Spanish Navy.

unifrome6 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino Infantrymen of the Spanish Army.



Linkback: https://tubagbohol.mikeligalig.com/index.php?topic=17025.0

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #1 on: January 05, 2009, 09:30:54 AM »
The Spaniards,

unifromes7 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Spanish Officers in Manila

unifromes8 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino members of the Spanish Guardia Civil. Equivalent to the Constabulary Force of the day.

FrtSantiago - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Spanish Soldiers (and Filipinos in uniform) marching to the Caroline Islands.
Military Contingent

archtriumph - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Spanish Army marching in Manila.
With banners exclaiming, "Viva Espana! Viva El Rey" (Long Live Spain, Long Live the King)

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Soldiers Marching in Manila

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Spanish Officers and Filipino soldiers in the Spanish Army/Guardia Civil constructing a bridge.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #2 on: January 05, 2009, 09:39:25 AM »
The following was written about the Guardia Civil in the Philippines from a historic source:

LA GUARDIA CIVIL EN FILIPINAS

Para sustituir a los Tercios de Policía y Partidas de Seguridad Publica, el gobierno español redactó un proyecto de reglamento para el establecimiento de la Guardia Civil en Filipinas, que se aprobó el 24 de marzo de 1.868.

Se procedió a la formación de un Tercio para la isla de Luzón, compuesto de una Planna Mayor de mando con coronel Primer Jefe, Teniente Coronel jefe de Detall, 3 comandantes jefe de distrito ( comandancia ), dos ayudantes, profesor médico, maestro armero y cabo cornetas.

Los efectivos totales de 1.045 hombres, incluidos los jefes, daban el estado siguiente: 8 capitanes, 16 tenientes, 16 alféreces, 8 sargentos 1º, 32 sargentos 2ª, 64 cabos 1º, 64 cabos 2ª, 8 cornetas y 824 guardias civiles, dandose la novedad de que las clases de tropa eran indígenas tagalos y que constituyó este primer Tercio todo un éxito

En mayo de 1.872 se creaba el 2º Tercio para la isla de Mindanao y el 6 de abril comenzaba a prestar servicios el Tercio de la Veterana para la ciudad de Manila, capital de Filipinas.

Ambos Tercios, aparte de los servicios peculiares de orden publico del Cuerpo y auxilio en terremotos y tifones, formaron parte de varias expediciones a las islas de Joló y Mindanao en lucha contra " moros ", "Dattos " sublevados, tropas de sultanes indonesios, piratas chinos, tribus igorrotes, islas de Oceanía, etc.

En el año 1.895 se estableció el tercer Tercio para Nueva Écija completando el estadillo de la Guardia Civil en Filipinas hasta l.898 de 16 Jefes, 143 Oficiales, 534 Clases y 2.992 Guardias Civiles, siendo del total 26 de caballería y tomando los Tercios la numeración 20º, 21º y 22º correlativos con los de Cuba, Puerto Rico y España y la Guardia Civil Veterana de Manila.

http://www.eldesastredel98.com/capitulos/ejercito.htm

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #3 on: January 05, 2009, 09:45:57 AM »
The Military Map of the Philippines in Spanish Account.
A list of military units and their station

despliegue - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

Text:
En 1896, año en el que se produce la insurrección filipina, el Ejército español desplegado en el archipiélago no sumaba más de 18.000 efectivos.
El despliegue español en Filipinas    

El Mando se componía única y exclusivamente de Jefes y oficiales españoles mientras que la clase de tropa era mixta de españoles y filipinos.
Totalizaba un total de 7 regimientos de infantería, 1 batallón disciplinario, 2 escuadrones de caballería, 1 regimiento de artillería de plaza, 2 baterías de artillería de montaña, 1 batallón de ingenieros, 1 brigada de Sanidad y 1 compañía de administración militar.
Las unidades se hallaban desplegadas en torno a la cabecera militar de Manila, en la isla de Luzón, y de Zamboanga en la isla de Mindanao.
Ésta última, junto al archipiélago de Joló, era la más conflictiva, al hallarse en sus aguas infinidad de piratas "moros" y por estar pobladas por diversos jefes locales que aprovechaban la falta de presencia militar española para romper los acuerdos a los que estaban obligados por los diferentes tratados . Se da la circunstancia de que el sur del Archipiélago, más conflictivo que el norte, era también el más desguarnecido, algo similar a lo que ocurría en la provincia de Oriente, en Cuba.
PULSA EN LAS ISLAS PARA VER MÁS

Había que sumar a estas fuerzas las unidades de la Guardia Civil, compuestas por 3 tercios indígenas y una sección de Guardia Civil Veterana (españoles) y 3 compañías de Carabineros, también españoles.
Desde España se enviaron 15 batallones de cazadores expedicionarios, numerados del 1 al 15, para sofocar la insurrección, con lo que en 1.898 la totalidad de las fuerzas españolas en Filipinas eran de 43.656 Jefes, oficiales y soldados.


In translation:

To sum up the entire message, when the Philippines was a Royal Colony of Spain, there were over 43 thousand Spanish officials, military units, constabulary forces in the islands. There were about 18,000 Spanish soldiers not including additional Filipino recruits in service of King and Country.

Most of the units were stationed primarily in Manila and Luzon and a significant force in Mindanao to quell the muslim insurrection.

There were units in the Visayas, though not so significant due to the fairly acceptable and cooperative nature of the Visayas Region to Spanish Rule. This translates in a fairly well assimilated Visayas to Spanish regimen.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #4 on: January 05, 2009, 10:08:53 AM »
About the Guardia Civil in the Philippines:


The majority of the Guardia Civil were conscripted native 'indios' as were the private soldiers of the Spanish native regiments (69-73 or thereabouts) - indeed Rizal was shot by 'indio' soldiers of the 70th Regimento de Magallanes. I tend to take the view that though they were part of Spain's administration in the Philippines they WERE 'Filipino' soldiers racially no less than the kapampangans of Francisco Manalastas who fought for Spain against the British (at the same time that Silang, Palaris and Dagohoy were fighting against Spain) or, I daresay, the Philippine Constabulary, Macabebe and later Philippine Scouts who, some Filipinos would argue were instruments of America's 'imperial regime' from 1899-1946. While there are some even here who would want to deny or 'whitewash' these 'loyalists' they are as undeniably a part of Filipino history as De Lancey's, the King's Royal New Yorkers or the British Legion are a part of American history.

Membership as indicated was by conscription and one of El Filibusterismo (Reign of Greed)'s sadder storylines tells the story of a Cabeza de Barangay (headman of a small village) named Tales (TAH-les) whose futile attempts to protect his land against the avaricious friars eventually destroys his family as his daughter becomes a househelp to pay off his debt, is later raped by a priest and kills herself and his son, Tano, is conscripted into the Guardia Civil. Later on Tales becomes a feared tulisan (bandit) chieftain and in one of the last chapters he is killed by his own son Tano (known by then as Carolino, a nickname from service in the Caroline Islands penal colonies), a Guardia Civil sharpshooter.

Many of these native Guardia Civil went over to the revolutionary forces as did the native soldiers of the 69-73rd Regimentos - hence the greater reliance of the Spanish on Peninsular troops like the Cazadores, particularly during the second period under Polavieja (the Lachambre offensive in Cavite 1897). General Licerio Geronimo's Tiradores del Muerte wore uniforms very similar to the GC, perhaps because some/many of his Tiradores were ex-GCs.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #5 on: January 05, 2009, 10:12:52 AM »
Addendum,

So the Spanish Army in the Philippines included about actually 18,000 Spaniards in uniform and about 70,000 native recruits in service of the King.

At the outbreak of the Filipino Revolution, the Filipino soldiers mutinied. Switching allegiance from Spain to the Philippines, instead.

One of the reasons why the Spaniards lost to most of the ground battles with the Filipino Revolutionary Army was due to the shear military size of the Filipino Revolutionary Army.

Additionally, the Filipino troops were armed with the then-state of the art Spanish Mauzer rifles.

Filipino soldiers were able to rally to the cause so quickly due to the training the soldiers recieved from their Spanish officers. Strict and cold regimen. Which the Filipinos, ironically, used against the Spaniards in the brief Filipino Revolutionary War.

Ingenious, imo.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #6 on: January 05, 2009, 10:25:32 AM »
That said,

I still am impressed in the Imperial organization of the Spaniards in ruling the Philippines, particularly the level of efficacy in their order. That even before the seeds of doubt and revolutionistic feelings rallied through the masses of the Filipino soldier in service of the King of Spain and His Army; the level of lethality the Filipino showed in combat under command of the Spanish.

The suppression of insurgencies, the suppression of the Dagohoy Rebellion in Bohol, which was suppressed by mostly Filipino soldiers of the Guardia Civil. Additionally, the rapid action that the regiments showed.

When the British took the Philippines from Spain for a brief period, the Spanish Empire was unable to rally a reconquest for 2 years due to logistical problems. However, what facilitated the reclaimatory process was the vehement loyalty of the Filipino soldiers serving under Spain.

When the Spaniards invaded the Philippines to reclaim it from Britain, the Filipino Guardia Civil rallied to the Spanish Flag, and overtook Manila and overwhelmed the British defenders. It was a complete victory.

And I find it historically important to know that it was in all actuality the Filipino soldiers that defeated the British soldiers. A combination of Filipino and Spanish soldiers took Manila, but a great majority of those regiments were 'indio' conscripts.

Just interesting to know about it, don't you think?

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #7 on: January 05, 2009, 02:09:47 PM »
Lorenzo I sure wish that you could of watched the movie now playing at cinema's titled Balleder.

I truly think you would enjoy the story very much.

I enjoyed it.

it was about a true love story of couples who had been through the Spain/Phil war.

The Spainards ended up surrendering in the movie.

It showed how insecure the Spainard captains were to their own troops.

Many had dies to sickness and poor rationings which later ccaused fatal sickness from starvation.

Oh my goodness' I walked out of the movie with tears flowing from my tear ducts.

I hope that you have a chance to watch it.

Hope you Holiday was a well one.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #8 on: January 06, 2009, 03:55:17 AM »
Precious,

I shall try to download it. The Battle of Baler is both a significant time line for the Filipinos and the Spaniards due to its military importance. Signifying the ending of 400 years of Spanish Colonialism--torn asunder.

Thank you for the recommendation.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #9 on: January 07, 2009, 07:30:28 AM »
I sent this link to a good friend of mine who is a PhD doctrol candidate in Imperial Spanish Colonialism.  We had warm conversation on the said topic; mostly me asking questions in regards to the level of control and autonomy the Guardia Civil had from the Audencia General from the Imperial Prefect.

It appears, that most of the Spanish soldiers that were sent to the Philippines were creoles from the Viceroyalty of Nueva Espana and that the officers were fresh graduates from Madrid. Gonzallo, my friend who I discussed this with, told me that most of the soldiers expedited from Nueva Espana were veterans in suppressing native Indio guerillas in the Yucatan, namely of the Ahuatl tribes, which resisted Spanish assimilation and coercion for some time. In consequence, most of these soldiers that were veterans of the Indio Wars were effective in training Filipino conscripts into the Guardia Civil in pacifying Moro uprisings in Mindanao.

Quite interesting conversation. I shall add more as time passes.

Please share your views.


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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #10 on: January 07, 2009, 07:43:30 AM »


Priscilla,

I downloaded a movie called "Los Ultimos de Filipinas", which is an old Spanish film based on the Siege of Baler. It's in Spanish, but the storyline is quite riveting.

here's the cover of the film:

222losultimas1 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

I highly recommend it for history and romance lovers.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #11 on: January 09, 2009, 03:54:47 AM »
The Spanish Testimony of the Filipino Soldier, In Service of His Royal Spanish Majesty's Army.



Even under foreign rule, the Filipino established
a reputation as an excellent soldier.  One
Spanish writer declared that the Filipino soldier
was the bravest of all the subjects of the king
of Spain, at a time when the Spanish empire was
at its height.

Father Delgado, responding to criticism leveled
against the Indio stated:


        "On the contrary, it must be said that
        the Indians are those who defend us from
        our enemies; for, in the presidios, who are
        the soldiers, who sail in the war fleets, who
        are in the vanguard in war?  Could the
        Spaniards, perchance, maintain themselves
        alone in the country, if the Indians did not
        aid in everything?"


        (Blair & Robertson, The Philippine Islands,
        1493-1898, Vol. VI, pp. 270-271)


The records of the Spaniards were full of the daring
exploits of Filipino soldiers. In a letter by Juan
Grau y Monfalcon he wrote of the Filipinos:


        "Those Indians, mingled with Spaniards,
        serve as soldiers in war, and have proved
        excellent therein.  Especially are the
        Pampangos valiant soldiers, who have performed
        and are daily performing valiant exploits at
        the side of the Spanish.  They were at the taking
        of Terrenate; and, whenever occasion offers, they
        with other companies come to guard the city of
        Manila."


        (Conrado Benitez, History of the Philippines,
        Boston, 1929, p. 258)


When the British invaded Manila they encountered stirring
resistance from the Filipino defenders.  Here is what
Draper says in his journal:


        "Had their skill and weapons been equal to their
        strength and ferocity, it might have cost us dear.
        Although armed chiefly with bows, arrows, and lances,
        they advanced up to the very muzzles of our pieces,
        repeated their assaults, and died like wild beasts,
        gnawing the bayonets."




 Because of their dependence on Filipino soldiers, so Spaniards
 worried about the possibility of revolt.  Bernardino Maldanado
 in his report to the king warns of this danger:


        "They are a people of great boldness only needing a
         leader whom they would recognize, and the are so many
         in number that it is a matter that must be feared
         considerably, and one of which your Majesty orders
         us to be fearful and watchful."


        (Conrado Benitez, History of the Philippines,
        Boston, 1929, p. 248)



One of the finest compliments to the Filipino as a soldier
might be the following Spanish saying regarding the
people of Pampanga province:


         "One Spaniard and nine Pampanguenos are more than
         a match for ten men from any nation."


          (Sturtevant, Popular Uprisings in the Philippines:
          1840-1940, p. 90))

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #12 on: January 09, 2009, 03:57:57 AM »
The title is Baler.   
Starred by Anne Curtis (who won best actress in this film on the Manila Film Fest this December) and Jericho Rosales.
heeey? what's the point of this?


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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #13 on: January 09, 2009, 04:12:14 AM »
In Rodriguez's works, he testifies that during the Peninsular Wars in the Americas; Spanish Regular troops were augmented by Filipino regiments that served as auxillary units. Filipino conscripts served under the Spanish Flag against the Independence War of Mexico.

It is amazing to know that out of the many colonies Spain had in its vast empire, it was the Filipino who was exceedingly Loyal to the Spanish Motherland.

The only nation that actually vouched to become part of Spain as an provincia de ultramar de España Madre (Overseas Spanish Province, or literally, Spanish Province beyond the Motherland).

Thousands of Filipino conscripts served in Spain's Army abroad. In the conquest of Morocco, Filipino regiments were augmented. In the suppression of Cuba and Puerto Rico, Filipinos serving in the Guardia Civil were sent abroad to suppress such revolts.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #14 on: January 09, 2009, 04:28:12 AM »
I'm going to repost this, which I find rather interesting in seeing.

unifromes2 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

The following is a portrait of a Filipino Infantryman in service of His Royal Spanish Majesty's Royal Spanish Army. This soldier knew how to speak the lingua franca of the day, Castillian-Spanish, and was most probably a Pampangueno of origin. As a majority of Filipino conscripts that served under the Spanish Colours were either from Pampanga or The Visayas.

It is important to see the uniform of the Filipino Soldier. The soldier in the right and left are conscripts of the Spanish Guardia Civil. The soldier pictured in the center is a Filipino soldier conscripted into the Royal Army proper. Probably an educated Tagalog who studied in Madrid and came back to the Philippines to serve in the military.

Most of the educated elite or the rich elite belonged to the Principale Class, an Oligarchy ruling elite. These individuals were vehement loyalists to Spain and ran the administration in the Philippines (occupying ranks of Gobernadorcillo, Teniente primer/segundo and other administrative positions). Many Filipino youths of the Principale class sought distinction either by studying in Spain and returning back to take up positions in the Imperial Beurocracy or by enrolling in the Military Academies in Spain to come back as officers in the Royal Army to lead regiments/batallions.

Honor and Distinction. Or as many of them would shout, "Por Espana Madre, Y EL Rey!"


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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #15 on: January 09, 2009, 07:01:15 AM »
The Military Elite of Spanish Philippines

unifromes3 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino officers in service of the Cabineros Regiment in the Philippines.
These men were the crack elite of the Spanish Infantry that served in the Philippines and other territories that belonged to the Spanish Empire. They were armed with Spanish Carbines/Mauzers which were equipped with bayonetts. Notice their Imperial Helmets. Their helmets suggests that they were used in foreign territories outside of the Philippines. Suggesting that these officers served in the Spanish Army proper alongside with Spaniards. In fact, it is widely accepted by historians that Filipinos made up a large part of Spain's overseas Army and manned the Royal Spanish Navy.

Highlighting the Filipino's supremacy at sea. Ever so manifested in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade.

unifrome6 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
In the left is an Infantry private, in center is an Imperial Guard corporal. In the right is a Filipino Officer. These Filipinos are wearing Spanish Army uniforms. Signifying they were trained in the military academies in Spain and conscripted in the Royal Army in Spain. Probably of Principales Class. Devotion to Spain and King.

unifromes5 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Filipino sailors serving in the Royal Spanish Navy. Man in the right is an officer.




Lorenzo

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #16 on: January 09, 2009, 07:25:10 AM »
Spanish Cavalry


2604331514_8d14f10f06 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Officer in the His Majesty's Royal Spanish Cavalry Corp

6_119a - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Spanish Cavalry; most stationed in Luzon and Mindanao

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Spanish Cavalry Units; wearing the same uniforms in the 1890s

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Spanish Cavalry Officer

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2554251290_22b429db9c - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

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Spanish Cavalry Corpman

2554255632_421604142b - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic
Line Formation

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #17 on: January 17, 2009, 04:28:34 AM »
Some fortifications that were built; Spanish blockhouses

blockhouse3 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

blockhouse2 - The Spanish Army in the Philippines - General Topic

Blockhouses like these were built around key urban areas throughout the Philippines, many of which were built around Manila, Cebu, and key provinces whose port trade were essential to the survival of the colony.


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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #18 on: April 19, 2009, 11:09:59 PM »
You know what is interesting?

Most of Spain's Foreign Legionaries were Filipino :)

In the mid half of the 19th century, Spain's expeditions to Morocco as well as in the Canaries were aided by Filipino soldiers that served in His Royal Spanish Majesty's Guardia Civil.

Filipinos joined the ranks of Spanish cavalry, in overruning forts. Filipino soldiers being sent to subdue islamic separatists in Morocco.

Even in Cuba, most of the Spanish Army that was stationed in Cuba, there were battallions that were composed of Filipino soldiers and officers that served in the Royal Guardia Civil.

Did you guys know that?

Even in the PENINSULAR WAR, thousands of Filipino soldiers were conscripted into the Spanish Army to support operations.

So loyal were the Filipinos to the Spaniards that a general of the Spanish Army once opined to the Spanish King, "Your Majesty, the retention of the colonies is due to the feasability of the Filipino soldier. 100 Filipino soldiers of the guardia civil under the command of Spanish officer is equivalent to any other foreign force."

Out of Spain's many colonies, Only the Philippines remained loyal to Spain the longest. 400 years. Half a millenia.

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Re: The Spanish Army in the Philippines
« Reply #19 on: May 12, 2009, 06:01:56 AM »
In a conversation I had with Alejandro Villalobos, who was a fellow history student in Allegheny, his collegiate study was focused on Imperial Spanish developments; particularly in Latin America during the Felipan Epoch (the rule of Emperor Philip II), while I focused more on Imperial Military History.

We had an interesting conversation, now that I remember it. He asked me, after reading my collegiate thesis on Filipino Nationalism, how is it that--in my opinion that is--the Philippines remained so loyal to the Spaniards for such a long time, whereas the people of Latin and South America revolted after only 2 centuries of the Motherland's rule. It was an honest and intellectual question, which, am sure, has been the subject of many historical debates within the Spanish and Filipino historical body. Am sure.

Before I share my answer in here, Id like to know your answer--yes--you, the reader.
What do you think is the reason for that manifestation?




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Philippine Army: In the Past

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Last post November 01, 2008, 03:17:13 PM
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