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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #80 on: April 27, 2010, 10:27:54 AM »
A newly uploaded video on:


Male Reproductive System: The Hormonal Pathways

Male Reproductive System: Hormone Pathways



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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #81 on: April 28, 2010, 06:26:15 PM »
You´ve got a super voice, sexy jamo!!!! ;D It is pleasant to hear. I would like to comment that you practice more before a mirror and avoid  hm, ahh,eh.
I love your voice Bran, basing on it you must be a very wonderful guy.

Manay

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #82 on: April 30, 2010, 11:11:29 AM »
Processing And Presentation of Antigen.


This is an overview lecture on Immunology and the role of antigen presentation; I also go into brief detail on superantigen (TSST-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin and staphylococcal pyrogenic toxins), and the T-cell stimulation (3 step process).

This is an integrative lecture on Immunology and Microbiology.

Processing And Presentation of Antigen


Enjoy.

Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #83 on: May 20, 2010, 11:26:43 PM »
Dear Students of Medicine,

W will further go into detail in Immunological Pathways by focusing on the different kinds of Immune-Related Diseases and Syndromes. We shall explore the different kinds of immunological conditions, the mechanisms of actions, the symptoms of these conditions, and any pharmacologic-surgical modes of treatment available.

This will be extensive, so this will take some time to work on.

All the best.

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #84 on: May 21, 2010, 06:35:28 PM »
Doy Bran, I want to hear your opinion on this, I got it from my mailbox;



Subject: mixing medicines

This was sent to us from a nurse in a school district.....
thought I'd better pass it along just as an FYI.
"Motrin and Robitussin don't mix"!!!!!
Madison , age 8, passed away just a few days ago.
Please pass this on.
Doctors told her family that there have been quite a few children
Madison 's age that have died recently the same way that she did.
The only common link between them was that they were given Motrin
(ibuprofen) and Robitussin together, this caused a heart attack.
They believe this is what happened to them.
They told her to alert everyone to this.
"Do not give children both of these medicines together."
You can give them one or the other but not both.
When Madison collapsed she suffered a heart attack and they were able to
revive her but the loss of oxygen damaged her brain and she was put on
the respirator.
After this she had four strokes before she died after being taken off
the respirator. Please pass this on!!!!!!!!!
Lisa Lopez M.A.
Children's Medical Center of Dallas
Pulmonary Clinic
214-456-2693 phone
214-456-5406 fax
THANK YOU
PLEASE  PASS ALONG TO YOUR LOVING FAMILY AND FRIENDS



Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #85 on: May 22, 2010, 12:42:14 AM »

Manay, this email is nothing but a hoax. This has been circulating since 2007 and each year the names have changed. Motrin is nothing but ibuprofin and Robitussin is a cough suppressant. These two are OTC Drugs (over the counter) and do not require prescription, however, it is always advised to talk to your family practioner about mixing OTCs in case an individual is allergic or sensitive to any of these.

Motrin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug whose main indicative use is to relieve pain and relieve inflammation. Tussin (Robitussin) is nothing but dextromethorphan ingredient whose therapeutic goal is to relieve coughing. Both drugs have undergone extensive testing under the FDA and there have been no negative effects relating to myocardial infarct due to intake of such OTC drugs.

The email does not indicate any underlying cardiac abnormality of the child that he or she might have had, which could have predisposed the child to a myocardial infarct (as there are many rare congenital cardiac defects that can lead to pediatric MI cases, albeit the fact that it is very rare) and it is too vague in its story line.

Let me tell you all what a heart attack is: A Myocardial Infarct (Heart Attack) is a necrotic development of the myocardium (the heart) due to hypoxia of the different parts of the heart due to atherosclerotic plaque developepment, which leads to the development of thrombi and cloggage of arterial vessels that supplies blood to the heart muscle. If the particular vessel is clogged enough, and supply of oxygenated blood is hampered to the heart, the heart muscles will die, and develop necrotic lesions and fibrotic bands. This is called an Infarct. A severe MI due to the coagulation of the coronary artery and the intervertebral arteries will lead to pan-necrotic damage to a large part of the heart, and thereby significantly affecting the heart's ability to perform its ability to pump blood to the systemic circulation. As a result of this complication, the heart will give in, and the patient will expire.

The development of a thrombi and the process of atherosclerosis is chronic in duration. This means that it takes a long time to develop and the heart attack is due to a long-term abuse of the particular vessel and occlusion of said vessel.

This thereby destroys the notion that the mixture of Robitussin and Motrin is the cause since these drugs have an effective dose for only 4-6 hours, meaning that it was given for an acute condition, and was give that day. The supposed child suffered a heart attack that day, and there is no physiologic-anatomic way that a thrombi and atherosclerotic plaque would develop within hours and completely cause a massive MI. It is an anti-inflammatory agent meaning that it would mitigate any migration of mast cells or basophils from releasing histamine (because an agent of motrin is histaminase--meaning it breaks down motrin from forming a complex and initiating its MOA (mechanism of action). On the contrary, this supposed child suffered from a long-time congenital cardiac defect, probably due to mitral valve stenosis , aortic stenosis, some kind of mitral valve insufficiency due to a congenital birth defect. The regurgitation of blood back to the atrium from the valves due to the stenosis could have affected the arteries and damaged the endothelial lining, causing thrombi to develop via chronic duration. Which could have caused the infarct. There are so many possible and plausible causes that could have predisposed the said child to such infarct that lead to death. Again, emphasis in pediatric congenital cardiac abnormality as the COD (cause of death) and not the OTC.

~

But to everyone who is a mother, father, or caring for a child, always ask your physician for advice before buying an OTC for use for yourself or for your child before actually using it. Take a conservative stance in regards to this.





Best,
Bran Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #86 on: May 22, 2010, 02:45:19 PM »
I´m glad to read your prompt reply, I can´t imagine a  pain killer and cough syrup to be taken together as detrimental to one´s heart.

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #87 on: May 23, 2010, 12:14:36 AM »

And thank you for your concern, as it benefits all of us, I am sure. :)

Ang lesson ani, Manay, is that we be conservative in everything we read in mass chain emails.

Thank You, my dear.


Best,

Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #88 on: May 25, 2010, 02:43:04 AM »
In regards to the pulmonary system, its rather interesting in that the pulmonary vasculature, hypoxia causes vasoconstriction. In other organs, hypoxia causes vasodilation.

Cool.

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #89 on: May 25, 2010, 02:45:24 AM »
The body's innate reaction, in regards to Tetralogy of Fallot:

Patients learn to squat to improve symptoms: compression of femoral arteries increases pressure, thereby decreaes the right to left shunt and directing more blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

This is innate.

Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #90 on: September 05, 2010, 05:13:07 AM »
What is the Good Samaritan Law?


A: Relieves health care workers, as well as laypersons in some instances, from liability in certain emergency situations with the objective of encouraging health care workers to offer assistance.

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #91 on: September 26, 2010, 07:39:04 AM »
Presentation:

A 59 year old male presents to the emergency room with sudden severe and constant low back pain. Past medical history is significant for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, emphysema, coronary artery disease, stabile angina and a 25 pack year history of smoking. The patient was hospitalized for a CVA 7 years ago. Physical examination reveals a 5.8 cm pulsatile mass superior tot he umbilicus in the abdomen. T= 98.5 degrees F, BP= 150/90 mm Hg, HR = 80 bpm, and RR = 23 breaths/min.


Differential:

AAA (aortic dissection aneurysm), pyelonephritis/ nephrolithiasis, prostatitis, and pancreatitis.

Diagnosis:

Given that this pain developed suddenly and the presence of an abdominal pulsatile mass, this patient most likely has an AAA.

Lab Order:

CT scan with contrast, CT angiogram, and cardiac catheterization to be performed to assess cardiac risk and potentially revascularize the patient for operation. Surgical intervention mandated.






Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #92 on: September 26, 2010, 07:53:21 AM »
Support for surgical intervention:

As an aneurysm becomes larger than 5.5 cm, the risk of rupture increases exponentially; an aneurysm smaller than 5.5 cm is less likely to rupture and or to benefit ratio of surgery is less supportive. Therefore, if an AAA is smaller than 5.5 cm in diameter and asymptomatic, the patient can be followed with ultrasound or CT surveillance ever 6 months. If the aneurysm is larger than 5.5 cm in diameter and symptomatic, the patient should be taken to the operating room, the former is considered a medical emergency.



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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #93 on: September 28, 2010, 03:14:38 AM »
The Arterial Blood Supply of the Myocardium {The Heart}.

Presented by: A. Lorenzo Lucino Jr.

Heart Arterial Supply

Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #94 on: January 15, 2011, 05:31:36 AM »
Aging , The Natural Process. A Psychoanalytic Point of View

Psychiatry Medical Report


by: A. Lorenzo Lucino Jr, Medical Intern


   Aging is a natural process of life and we all age from the day we were born to the day that we die, the body continues in this natural progression of life, which translates in changes in the physiological body as well as human psychology and function. When one regards the phenomenon that is aging, one has to take into consideration the negative and positive factors, in this case, healthy aging and unhealthy aging. Healthy aging refers to the positive factors that an individual goes through throughout retirement, and the positives in aging. This may include the practices of eating healthy, exercising actively, maintaining social relationships and a support group while one ages. Unhealthy aging is the antithesis of healthy aging, this term may regard to the negative aspects of aging attributed to bad health practices of an individual such as smoking, drinking, a lack of support group as one ages (Growing Old In A New Age, 1993).

   One has to take into consideration the natural processes of career development and how these processes plays a role in retirement, the psychological effects of people in retiring age. This is best observed in Donald Super’s Five Stages of Career Development; his career stages included the Growth stage, Exploration stage, Establishment stage, Maintenance stage and the Disengagement stage (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008). In regards to retirement , it is rather interesting that there is such a stark contrast in the male and female work schedule. Bjorklund and Bee mentions that more men work full time than women , importantly, more men maintain a constant work schedule as compared to women, who have to worry about taking maternity leave, sick leave as compared to men. Women are also more willing to work part time jobs than men, as well as the fact that women are more inclined to move in and out of full time jobs more frequently than men (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008). Despite the fact that more and more women are taking more active roles and positions in the work force, it is rather interesting to note that men are still being paid higher wages than women for doing the same work. This affects the notion of retirement and the prospect of retirement in that due to this stark difference in work schedules and contributions, could result in differences in social security payment for men and women.

   Retirement and the prospect of retirement is rather dependent on social security , which was established some 60 years ago during the post-Great Depression Years, and because of this institutionalized system, could allow some sort of reprieve for workers. It is also important to note that job satisfaction, work and personal life affects the choice in retiring from a particular profession. If a professional enjoys his profession and receives not only economic rewards, but also emotional, social and physical rewards from the job, he or she is less likely to retire from the profession when he or she is reaching retiring age, but would rather choose to work part time. As compared to an individual who had less interest in the work place and would probably take the option or retiring early (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008).

   One also has to take into consideration how marriage and family life affects work and the prospect of work. It is evidenced that married men will earn a higher income as compared to unmarried men, likewise, married men are absent from work less than unmarried men (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008). Elizabeth Gorman notes that married men and women are usually more interested and focused on the prospects of a job than single men and women (Bjorklund and Bee, 2008). One can argue that due to the fiscal responsibilities of married couples, which might include paying off a mortgage loan, ensuring that their children finish college and find a stable profession etc. All of these said fiscal responsibilities and duties might play a significant role in a couple’s decision to retire from a job, or even delay retirement definitely. One has to understand that retirement will have particular effects, including a change in income, change in insurance coverage, and thus could play a role in the decision to retire or delaying retirement for some time. A couple who is in the retirement age, have no children, paid off their financial responsibilities would be more willing to retire than say a couple in retiring age that still had children in college, still paying for mortgage and other secondary expenses.

   In regards to Bjorlund and Bee’s teaching on the effects of retirement and the notion of the feminization of poverty. However, it must say that I do agree that retirement is more possible in this epoch because of the presence of social security, retirement benefits, pensions, as well as assets that are available as compared to say some 70 years ago when an individual was expected to work till he or she died.

Lorenzo

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #95 on: September 14, 2011, 02:39:57 AM »

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #96 on: October 03, 2011, 05:03:47 AM »
Hi guys. Let's talk about Renal Physiology and the clinical significance of it all. :)



CLINICAL ESTIMATION OF GFR AND CONCEPT OF CLEARANCE



GFR= Glomerular Filtration Rate
CLEARANCE = Refers to a theoretical volume of plasma from which a substance is removed over a period of time.


-Estimates of GFR are used clinically as an index of renal function and to assess the severity and course of renal disease

-A fall in GFR means the disease is progressing , whereas an increase in GFR suggests a recovery

-In many cases a fall in GFR may be the first and only clinical sign of renal dysfunction

-Estimation of GFR rely on the concept of clearance



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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #97 on: October 03, 2011, 05:05:34 AM »
What determines GFR?


-Except for an unusual situation when plasma protein concentration changes dramatically or renal obstruction develops, the main factor determining GFR is glomerular capillary pressure.

-An increase in capillary pressure increases GFR, and a decrease in capillary pressure decreases GFR.

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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #98 on: October 04, 2011, 01:43:35 AM »
Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms including protein in the urine (more than 3.5 grams per day), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling.

Nephrotic syndrome is caused by various disorders that damage the kidneys, particularly the basement membrane of the glomerulus. This immediately causes abnormal excretion of protein in the urine.

The most common cause in children is minimal change disease, while membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.

This condition can also occur as a result of infection (such as strep throat, hepatitis, or mononucleosis), use of certain drugs, cancer, genetic disorders, immune disorders, or diseases that affect multiple body systems including diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, and amyloidosis.

It can accompany kidney disorders such as glomerulonephritis, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis.

Nephrotic syndrome can affect all age groups. In children, it is most common from age 2 to 6. This disorder occurs slightly more often in males than females.


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Re: Medical Lecture and Lessons
« Reply #99 on: October 04, 2011, 01:44:52 AM »
Histological slide of a patient with diabetic glomerulosclerosis w/ nephrotic syndrome:

Diabetic_glomerulosclerosis_%281%29_HE - Medical Lecture and Lessons - Science and Research



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