But China is not the only country to have been humiliated and humiliated others in turn. While India was humiliated by China in 1962, it also inflicted what its neighbour Pakistan remembers as a humiliating defeat nine years later. Since independence in 1947, Pakistan had vied to establish itself as India's equal in South Asia, joining alliances led by the United States or cosying up to China to demonstrate its strategic relevance. The 1971 Indo-Pakistani War, which led to the independence of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), crushed those hopes.
Yet Pakistan, too, remains oblivious to the humiliating impact of its own actions: Its nearly four-decade-long history of interference in Afghanistan to secure "strategic depth" will leave Afghanistan traumatised for years to come, in a way that Russia-inflicted losses did not. The same is true of all the aforementioned humiliations: They are particularly painful because an Asian neighbour, not a distant power, inflicted them.
Such humiliations, as we have seen with China, have a long-lasting impact. Indeed, they can create an all-consuming desire for vengeance that overwhelms more sober foreign policy motivations. That is why, for example, Pakistan's army is prepared to undermine all other institutions in the country it is sworn to defend, in the name of wounding India.