Author Topic: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)  (Read 2291 times)

Lorenzo

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Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
« on: February 14, 2012, 02:04:50 PM »
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  • Hi guys, am working on a paper that deals with a two-way ANOVA method. I was able to complete the SPSS program and created a frequency table, tukey test, post-hoc analysis, as well as an ANOVA on the the said independent and dependent variables.

    Was wondering of you all could read over my data and give me some heads up on what else to add. For those who have experience in dealing with psychometrics and multivariate statistics, id really appreciate the help. Again, thanks!


    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #1 on: February 14, 2012, 02:16:04 PM »
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  • This paper is just a subdivision of a larger paper that I am working on , which is a requirement of my doctoral course on Medical Psychometrics and Statistics. I would be very much grateful for your peer review and professional help. Again, advanced thanks.


    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #2 on: February 14, 2012, 02:21:00 PM »
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  • title page:



    Two-Way Analysis of Variance on Multivariates: Gender, Feedback Conditions and Self-Efficacy Scores


    A. Lorenzo Lucino Jr, M.D-Ph.Dc










    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #3 on: February 14, 2012, 02:26:23 PM »
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  • For this assignment, we are to use the IBM SPSS software to input and analyze data set in which focuses on how sex, and feedback affects the self-efficacy scores that were measured via a psychological sound test , which had scores ranging from 0 to 100. This assignment focuses on the importance of utilizing the Analysis of Variance, otherwise known as ANOVA (Sullivan, 2010, p. 677). ANOVA is an inferential method that is used to test the equality of three or more population means. When using Analysis of Variance, the null hypothesis is always that the means of the different populations are equal. The alternative hypothesis is always that the mean of at least one population is different from the others (Sullivan, 2010, p. 677-678).
       
    We created a frequency table and obtained the median, mode, standard deviation and variance for the self-efficacy variable. The results indicated that in regards to self-efficacy, the mean was at 74.65, median was 77.50, mode was 55.00, standard deviation was 15.31520, variance was at 234.555 and range was 47.00. This can be reaffirmed in the following table that was produced in IBM SPSS:





    There are three variables that are being studied and they include sex, feedback and self-efficacy. There were two components of sex, either male or female and there were two components of feedback, which included no feedback and the informational feedback. The Self-efficacy score was measured in a scale of 0 to 100. From the analysis, we can observe that sex and feedback are independent variables and self-efficacy is the dependent variable. Due to the fact that we are measuring two independent variables, it necessitates the need to use ANOVA, otherwise known as the Analysis of Variance. The point here is to measure how sex and feedback conditions affect self-efficacy scores (Sullivan, 2010). Sex is measured in an ordinal scale, feedback is measured via nominal scale and self-efficacy is measured through an interval scale.

       We are told that this data set represented the following study that states, “Participants were assigned to either the no feedback or informational feedback condition, where they were either not provided with feedback on a recent computer task (none) or were provided with detailed feedback on their performance and what they could do to improve (informational). Equal number of males and females were assigned to each condition. After exposure to the feedback condition, participants were asked to complete a self-efficacy test. It was expected that the informational group would have higher self-efficacy than those in the no feedback group. In addition, males were expected to have higher self-efficacy than the females. Lastly, females who received informational feedback were expected to have the highest self-efficacy scores.”

    The null hypothesis is Ho : u1 = u2 ; u3 = u4
    The alternative hypothesis is H1: u1 ≠ u2; u3 ≠ u4


    In regards to the null and alternative hypothesis u1 represents informational group, u2 represents the no feedback group, u3 represents the male participants and u4 represents the female participants. We have to take into consideration that the null hypothesis is a statement of status quo or no difference and always contains a statement of equality. The null hypothesis is assumed to be true until we have evidence to the contrary (Sullivan, 2010, p. 506). The alternative hypothesis is a claim to be tested (Sullivan, 2010, p. 506-507).

    We created a frequency table and obtained the median, mode, standard deviation and variance for the self-efficacy variable. The results indicated that in regards to self-efficacy, the mean was at 74.65, median was 77.50, mode was 55.00, standard deviation was 15.31520, variance was at 234.555 and range was 47.00. This is reiterated in the following ascertained frequency table:




    The reason we ran a two-way ANOVA on this data is because two-way ANOVA allows us to compare the means differences between groups that have been split on two independent variables, which are called factors. A one-way ANOVA is used when we have one independent variable and one dependent variable, but when you have two independent variables and one dependent variable, it is preferred to use the two-way ANOVA (Sullivan, 2010). In this particular predicament, the two independent variables include sex and feedback conditions. The dependent variable is the self-efficacy score.

    The interaction indicates that the performance of both men and women differed substantially in regards to the estimated marginal means and varied according to informational feedback and no feedback. From looking at the provided interaction graph, we can see that women faired much better in self efficacy scores when information feedback was used, and scored substantially lower when no feedback was used. Male performance generally improved when informational feedback was utilized as compared to no feedback. One also realizes that female performance was substantially higher than male performance when informational feedback was used. The mean score for men who were not given feedback was a 75.200, men’s mean score with informational feedback given was a 82.800. The mean score for women with no feedback was a 51.400, and women with informational feedback had a mean score of 89.00. This is reiterated in the following graph and table:







    The Tukey Test is also known as the Honestly Significant Difference Tes or the Wholly Significance Test. This test is designed to compare pairs of means after the null hypothesis of equal means have been rejected. The Tukey test’s main objective is to be able to determine which population means differ significantly (Sullivan, 2010, p. 695). For this assignment, a Tukey is not used because there were fewer than three groups in the sex variable as well as the feedback variable.

    The p value is <0.05, we have an F value of 24.667, and a significant value of 0.000, which is translated as p <0.05. Considering the substantial differences in men in men and women’s self efficacy scores in regards to no feedback and informational feedback, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis of H1: u1 ≠ u2; u3 ≠ u4. In regards to the null and alternative hypothesis u1 represents informational group, u2 represents the no feedback group, u3 represents the male participants and u4 represents the female participants. We have to take into consideration that the null hypothesis is a statement of status quo or no difference and always contains a statement of equality. The null hypothesis is assumed to be true until we have evidence to the contrary (Sullivan, 2010, p. 506). The alternative hypothesis is a claim to be tested (Sullivan, 2010, p. 506-507).

    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #4 on: February 14, 2012, 02:26:44 PM »
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  • Advanced, thanks, guys.

    Mike Ortega Ligalig

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #5 on: February 14, 2012, 03:55:36 PM »
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  • Bran, there is a software that does all the statistical work for you. You can also check your work with some online statistics application. Just hit google.com
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    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #6 on: February 14, 2012, 04:05:43 PM »
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  • Thanks Mike, i will admit that this class has been very interesting for me, am now in the 6th week of this class. Our medical professor is very "limited" in his help, he provides statistical notations and provided us with access to the university's data pool but never even showed us the application and the format he wanted to. When asked he just says, "You are doctoral students, so use your brains and follow APA format and guideline." Our Monday's class was very annoying. We came in and he lectured for 20 minutes, turned around and said, we are done. The class was supposed to be for an hour and a half.

    I find myself teaching myself while i am doing my WARDS. Big headache.

    Mike Ortega Ligalig

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #7 on: February 14, 2012, 04:12:30 PM »
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  • We were lectured about this, Bran, in one of my MBA subjects. Unfortunately, I could no longer recall how to reconcile and graph data in statistical format/language. I was never interested about stats. I just forced myself to learn this field as it was part of the program.

    One of my Thai classmates solved any statistic problem by just using Microsoft Excel. Just try Excel.
    Romans 10:9
    "That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved."

    Sitemap | Top 100 Feed TubagBohol Twitter

    Mike Ortega Ligalig

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #8 on: February 14, 2012, 04:16:10 PM »
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  • This is the software, Bran:

    IBM SPSS Statistics is the ultimate tool for managing your statistics data and research.

    This super-app affords you complete control over your data. It allows you to make complex graphs and illustrations from statistics and is firmly aimed at professionals who want to solve business and research problems. To facilitate this, SPSS features a wide range of analytical functions that take the pain out of collating data.

    SPSS offers detailed analysis options to look deeper into your data and spot trends that you might not have noticed. You can test out hundreds of different variables on your data to see how figures or performance would change under different circumstances, while the app contains multiple advanced features that will allow you get the max from your data.

    An array of features

    Among these features are excellent sharing options, automated models, the ability to operate server versions of IBM SPSS Statistics Base and modules on IBM mainframe servers, a syntax editor, integration with Microsoft Office, and much, much more. In order to get a better idea of the functions and features, take a look here.

    Obviously, such power comes at a price. The SPSS download is pretty large, and once you do have the program installed, it does a pretty steep learning curve until you find your feet. You could argue that SPSS is actually a glorified version of Excel, but with far more options and power behind it, itΓΓé¼Γäós an impressive beast. As a result, domestic users may be intimidated and would be better off getting started on a simpler data management app.
    Romans 10:9
    "That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved."

    Sitemap | Top 100 Feed TubagBohol Twitter

    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #9 on: February 14, 2012, 04:20:47 PM »
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  • We were lectured about this, Bran, in one of my MBA subjects. Unfortunately, I could no longer recall how to reconcile and graph data in statistical format/language. I was never interested about stats. I just forced myself to learn this field as it was part of the program.

    One of my Thai classmates solved any statistic problem by just using Microsoft Excel. Just try Excel.

    I'll try Excel, Mike. I've been trying to use the program that my professor recommended, but i feel like i am lost in this. Three of my other colleagues who have been trying to use the program are literally lost in it.

    When we met with him after class on Monday to ask him some questions he just laughed at us and said, "You are doctoral students. Find it out."

    I had to control myself.


    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #10 on: February 14, 2012, 04:22:06 PM »
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  • This is the software, Bran:

    IBM SPSS Statistics is the ultimate tool for managing your statistics data and research.

    This super-app affords you complete control over your data. It allows you to make complex graphs and illustrations from statistics and is firmly aimed at professionals who want to solve business and research problems. To facilitate this, SPSS features a wide range of analytical functions that take the pain out of collating data.

    SPSS offers detailed analysis options to look deeper into your data and spot trends that you might not have noticed. You can test out hundreds of different variables on your data to see how figures or performance would change under different circumstances, while the app contains multiple advanced features that will allow you get the max from your data.

    An array of features

    Among these features are excellent sharing options, automated models, the ability to operate server versions of IBM SPSS Statistics Base and modules on IBM mainframe servers, a syntax editor, integration with Microsoft Office, and much, much more. In order to get a better idea of the functions and features, take a look here.

    Obviously, such power comes at a price. The SPSS download is pretty large, and once you do have the program installed, it does a pretty steep learning curve until you find your feet. You could argue that SPSS is actually a glorified version of Excel, but with far more options and power behind it, itΓΓé¼Γäós an impressive beast. As a result, domestic users may be intimidated and would be better off getting started on a simpler data management app.

    Thanks Bro. Will just have to spend some time on figuring this software out and also Excel.

    Mike Ortega Ligalig

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #11 on: February 14, 2012, 04:26:09 PM »
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  • I can download SPSS, Bran, but it's around 2 GB. I can store the file in an online backup site.
    Romans 10:9
    "That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved."

    Sitemap | Top 100 Feed TubagBohol Twitter

    Mike Ortega Ligalig

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #12 on: February 14, 2012, 04:27:25 PM »
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  • SPSS practically solves all statistical equations, Bran. That's the industry standard. Your professor is also using it, perhaps.
    Romans 10:9
    "That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved."

    Sitemap | Top 100 Feed TubagBohol Twitter

    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #13 on: February 14, 2012, 05:02:57 PM »
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  • Thanks, Mike! I need to just spend some more time in figuring out some of the features in the program.

    Lorenzo

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    Re: Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
    « Reply #14 on: February 18, 2012, 12:46:55 PM »
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  • Brod Mike,

    I downloaded the SPSS manual and was able to find the solution to my problem. I was able to finally implement proper frequency tables and use Tukey Tests via Post-Hoc analysis because of the manual's easy direction. Prior to this, i was clueless on how to use the program. Thanks, Mike, for recommending SPSS; you're right, it is easier. The problem was that its such a complex program...a manual is necessary for proper internalization of the program's functions.


    You have my gratitude, Mike.


    Bran.

     

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