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fdaray

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The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« on: March 15, 2009, 12:37:57 PM »
The Eskaya, less commonly known as the Visayan-Eskaya, is the collective name for the members of a cultural minority found in Bohol, Philippines. The Eskaya community is distinguished by its cultural heritage, particularly its literature and language, although many of its earlier traditional practices are no longer strictly observed.[1] Reports indicate that Eskaya linguistic and cultural education has been in steady decline since the mid-1980s.[2][3][4] Legally, the Eskaya are classified as an indigenous group under Republic Act or R.A. No. 8371 entitled "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997.[5][6]
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Area
    * 2 Language and script
    * 3 Religion
    * 4 Eskaya society
    * 5 Literature and mythology
          o 5.1 The Old Books
          o 5.2 Oral stories
    * 6 History
    * 7 Theories and controversies
    * 8 References
    * 9 Additional reading

[edit] Area

Most members of the Eskaya community inhabit a mountainous area that intersects the municipalities of Duero, Guindulman, Pilar, and Sierra Bullones in the once-forested region of Bohol's southeast interior. The original Eskaya settlement of Biabas (Guindulman), was established in the early 20th century by Mariano Datahan who died in 1949.[7] In 1951, the second township of Taytay (municipality of Duero) was founded by Fabian Baja in accordance with Datahan's directions.[8] Significant Eskaya populations are now also found in the nearby townships of Canta-ub, Lundag, Tambongan, Cadapdapan, and Fatimah. In 1996, the Eskaya community was awarded a certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim by President Fidel Ramos.[5] An official census of the Eskaya population has not yet been made. One report estimates that in 1991 there were 130 Eskaya families living in Bohol.[9]

[edit] Language and script
Main article: Eskayan

The speech variety of the Eskaya is known as Eskayan, or Ineskaya in the local Cebuano language. Lexically, Eskayan shows no clear relationship with any known language although there is strong but inconsistent Spanish influence.[10] A striking feature of the language is its unusual phonotactics, such as its patterns of consonant and vowel clusters.[11]

The Eskayan writing system takes the form of a syllabary of over 1,000 characters, all modeled on parts of the human body including internal organs.[12] This unique script has been compared variously to Phoenician,[13] Etruscan,[14][15] Hebrew, and even the undeciphered script of the Butuan paleograph.[16] While there are no mother-tongue speakers of Eskayan, it is taught to both adults and children in volunteer-run cultural schools. The Eskayan language and script has been the object of ongoing controversy.

[edit] Religion

Under the direction of Mariano Datahan, the group converted en masse to the nascent Philippine Independent Church in about 1902.[12] Community members revere the entity Suno which is conflated with the Santo Niño,[17] and in addition to weekly church services they are served by appointed spiritual leaders known as biki and beriki. The biki, or bishop, is responsible for performing harvest ceremonies and other rituals such as house blessing. Before a house can be constructed, a ritual is performed in which a spiritual leader asks the permission of the spirits. If permission is not granted, the builder must select a new site.[17] The Eskaya also retain spiritual traditions once widespread in lowland Boholano rural communities.[18]

[edit] Eskaya society

The teaching of Eskayan in the volunteer schools is one of the few remaining cultural practices of the Eskaya community.
Formerly, Eskaya men would wear shirts made of piña raffia with a Chinese-style collar, black breeches, and cotton berets. Women wore piña dresses with bulging sleeves similar to the Spanish-influenced Boholano style (mostly in Biabas) and covered their hair with cotton habits (mostly in Taytay).[17] Traditionally, women were not permitted to cut their hair short nor wear trousers, and drinking and dancing were universally prohibited. For the most part these customs have been discontinued, however traditional dress is sometimes worn on Sundays and special occasions.

At weddings the parents of the bride offer the couple a glass of water and a comb. The comb is dipped in the water and run through the hair of both bride and groom. Rice is then showered on the couple, connoting plenty.[17]

Until recently, the Eskaya practised a form of communal farming in which a portion of land was tilled for the benefit of the whole community.

[edit] Literature and mythology

[edit] The Old Books

The Eskaya literary canon is recorded in a series of texts comprising the karaang mga libro or "old books" and several secular writings.[12] These texts are mostly written in Eskayan, although a few are in Cebuano and one is reported to be in Spanish.[14] The Eskaya stories are fundamental to the community’s understanding of itself, particularly its origins, belief systems, and practices. One legend tells of how the group first arrived in Bohol from Sumatra. Their first leader, Dangko, had twelve children who settled near Antequera before moving east.[3] Various other Eskayan legends recount the stories of Boholano kings and heroes; a few of these stories even make reference to actual historical figures such as Jesus of Nazareth, Datu Sikatuna, Ferdinand Magellan, and Francisco "Dagohoy" Sendrijas. Due to these intersections with recorded history, some commentators consider them to be historical texts while others argue that they function solely as mythologies[19]

As part of their cultural education, students must transcribe five stories from the Old Books into lined textbooks at the Eskaya schools.[3]

The Eskaya writings mentioned by researchers are as follows: Abedeja, Ang Alpabeto sa Katsila, Ang Damgo ni Hurayhaber, Ang Lingganay na Ugís, Ang mga hiyas ug Caague ni Mariano Datahan, Ang pagtulun-an sa Bisayas, Aritmetica, Askormos Meneme, Atekeses, Bisayan Declarado, Daylinda, Grinada, Kwadra, Pamatasan, Pinay, Pinulungan, Rangnan, Simplet, Suno, Tumao and Unang Tao sa Bisaya sa Bohol. Identical texts sometimes go by different names and larger texts may subsume smaller ones.[19] Brenda Abregana, a former curator of the Bohol Museum, has mentioned a folded book of esoteric knowledge written in Spanish but its existence has not been established.[14]

[edit] Oral stories

The Eskaya oral stories are often oriented towards the future as millenarian prophecies.[2] Other tales concern relatively recent occurrences such as the Japanese occupation of Bohol in World War II.

[edit] History
Statue of Mariano Datahan outside the Eskaya cultural school, Taytay

Although the Eskaya had been known to people living in the vicinity of Bohol’s southeast highlands prior to World War II, it was only in the early 1980s that they came to wider public attention when government agricultural advisers toured the province to introduce Green Revolution policies.[20] Local journalists and researchers have since suggested various theories on the origins of the Eskaya but there is still no broad consensus on the subject.[19]

As far as documented evidence is concerned, genealogies attest that many of the predecessors of those living in the communities today originally came from the town of Loon on Bohol’s western coast;[21] Mariano Datahan is reported to have arrived at the site of present-day Biabas at the turn of the nineteenth century; The Philippine Independent Church in Biabas was established in 1902;[14] Datahan wrote a letter to President Manuel Quezon in 1937;[12] and the resistance hero Col. Esteban Bernido records a meeting with Datahan in Biabas in 1944.[22][23]

[edit] Theories and controversies

The Eskaya community has been the object of ongoing controversy, particularly with regards to its status as an indigenous group and the classification of the Eskayan language.[10] Intense speculation in the 1980s and 1990s on the part of journalists and lay historians generated a number of theories that continue to be elaborated without resolution.[19]

It has been argued variously that the Eskaya are a remnant of the original indigenous settlers on Bohol;[1] that they migrated to Bohol from Sumatra in the seventh century A.D.;[24] that they are descendants of the resistance groups that fought under Francisco Dagohoy;[25] that they are a cult[26] or secret society;[11] or that they are a conscious reconstruction of an imagined pre-colonial society.[12]

Some of the more unusual proposals are that the Eskaya people are a Semitic proto-Christian tribe;[27] that they possess the lost book of Enoch;[28] that they are descended from the builders of King Solomon’s temple;[13] that their existence proves the imminence of a second Messiah in Bohol; or that they guard esoteric secrets.[14]

Likewise, the Eskayan speech variety has been associated with languages as disparate as Hebrew, Greek, and Etruscan. Recent studies have revealed that the syntax of Eskayan is identical to that of Cebuano,[12][4][10] lending weight to the theory that Eskayan is actually an elaborate form of Cebuano coding.[8][10][12]


[

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ZecurB

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #1 on: March 16, 2009, 04:57:13 PM »
Nicely pasted from WikiPedia... but I learned and heard otherwise.. The tribe is still a controversial one and unfortunately until now I am still looking for the scientific studies to solidly prove that they are a cultural minority..sorry :(


-<GEC348>-

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #2 on: March 16, 2009, 05:06:40 PM »


I heard of one historian who professed that the Eskaya tribe is a pseudo tribe.

Well, all I care for now is to finally get to enter Eskaya Resort. Free passes, anyone? ;D

This smacks of a grand conspiracy to hide the non-existent, to identify the nameless, to paint a picture of the unseen. -- Benelynne


glacier_71

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #3 on: March 16, 2009, 09:03:52 PM »

panghatag bay GEC...i-pm lang nako. akong gamiton inig uli nako pohon. hahaha
Artificial Intelligence is nothing in comparison to Natural Stupidity.


Koddi Prudente

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #4 on: March 16, 2009, 11:18:58 PM »
I am certain nga dili na sila cultural minority kay walay cultural minority sa Loon. Si Mariano Datahan, whose real name is Mariano Sumatra taga Loon, and most of the original members of the Eskaya community in Biabas, Guindulman were his friends and relatives that he recruited from Loon. Dili na sila sama sa Manobo, Mandaya, Talaandig, Subanun, etc. nga klaro gyud ang pagka cultural minority. Nag invent lang na silag ilang kaugalingong alphabet ug language aron dili masabtan sa uban. They also adopted a communal system of agriculture, diin si Mariano or Anoy maoy hatagan sa pahat sa abot aron ibaligya, ang halin gamiton ipalit og inputs for the next cropping season. Mao na nga nahimo siyang "Datahan".   


fdaray

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #5 on: March 17, 2009, 10:00:17 AM »
Dili man sad tanang mabasa  sa Wekipedia facts.


perezkelly

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #6 on: March 17, 2009, 03:36:31 PM »

They *are* a cultural minority. Whether or not they are 'indigenous' or 'tribal' is another matter if you are to go by the conventional meanings of those words which are themselves ambiguous in a Filipino context. Since the 1990s some Eskaya have chosen to use the words 'tribe' and 'indigenous' in identifying themselves - I make no judgement. As for studies, see this:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/8137028/The-Classification-of-the-Eskayan-Language-of-Bohol



fdaray

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #7 on: March 18, 2009, 11:26:32 AM »
Early Philippine Writing and
Early Philippine Education


The literacy of the Filipinos astonished the Spanish. Morga states about the native script: "Almost all the natives, both men and women, write in this language. There are very few who do not write it excellently and correctly." This was very different than the situation in Europe were the it was mostly the elite that were literate. The writing was done on palm-leaves with a pen with an iron point. It was only later they adopted the European quill, although eventually everyone began using the Filipino method of iron points again.

It may be that there were at least two types of script used in the Philippines -- one for the commoner and one for the elite. The commoner script was highly successful in that the masses were able to learn and use it quickly. The evidence of a more sophisticated script comes in the finding of the Laguna Copper Plate Grant . This script was similar to Kawi of Indonesia and could represent many more sounds.

Yet another script found in the islands is the that of the Eskaya tribe. There is an article in the September 1991 issue of Mabuhay magazine that discussed this tribe and their forgotten script.

According to the article, the Eskaya, who live on the island of Bohol, speak a language unrelated to the Boholano or Cebuano dialects. They use a script, which is described as logographic, having 46 symbols representing sound syllables rather than alphabets. The symbols are based on parts of the human anatomy. The article states that the script was similar to that of the Phoenicians, which would actually make it logo-syllabic rather than logographic. The use of 46 syllables shows that it was a rather sophisticated language.

The article claims that the script and some documents in this language had been preserved by Mariano Datahan from a Spanish edict that all writing in the language should be burned. They were passed on to Fabian Baha, the present leader of the tribe(as of 1991) in 1947. Today, the Eskaya continue to teach the children their script and traditions. In fact, the article claims that scholars and linguists are also studying the Eskaya language and script in hopes of obtaining clues as to the ancestor of the modern Bisayan languages. The Eskaya claim to have come originally from Western Sumatra, from whence they sailed to Bohol in 677 AD. They claim that Sikatuna and Dagohoy were also from the Eskaya tribe. They have many legends concerning their own culture hero who is known as Tamblot. As of 1991, there were 130 families of Eskaya living in Bohol.

fdaray

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #8 on: March 18, 2009, 11:39:48 AM »
Based on the article I posted above, the legendary hero Francisco Dogohoy,
Sikatuna and Tamblot were descendants of the Eskaya tribe. The Eskaya
tribe sailed from Sumatra to Bohol in 677 AD. From that time on, this tribe
peopled Bohol.

Hence, we Boholanos came from the Eskaya tribe.

Koddi Prudente

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #9 on: March 19, 2009, 12:20:55 AM »
Si Mariano Sumatra, nga taga Loon, later surnamed Datahan (founder of Eskaya in Bohol, particulalry in Biabas, Guindulman) ug si Fabian Baha, ang nag lead sa "extension" community of the Eskaya sa Taytay, Duero nag-abot pa sa kinabuhi. Therefore, the Eskaya community in Bohol is not pre-Hispanic. Dugay nang namatay si Tamblot ug si Sikatuna, wala pay Eskaya. Naa pay daghang mga Sumatra sa Loon nga mga buhi pa, ug makasubay pa sa ilang pagka paryente kang Anoy Datahan.

perezkelly

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #10 on: March 19, 2009, 06:38:50 AM »

This is a good point. So much confusion over this issue has come from the fact that some researchers took the traditional folkloric stories of the Eskaya as historical fact. Tamblot, Dagohoy and Sikatuna feature prominently in Eskaya folkore. Even Magellan is mentioned. The Eskaya themselves do not necessarily take these tales literally just as many Christians do not accept the literal truth of Genesis. This doesn't mean that Genesis is not instructive to those same Christians or that the stories are not important to the Eskaya. I suggest interpreting Eskaya folk tradition *on its own terms* and the archival, historical, archeological and linguistic data *on its own terms*. You don't need one to explain the other. Eskaya literature is part of Bohol's rich cultural heritage - it ought to be promoted and cherished. As for the non-folkoric history of the community I agree with Koddi. It's likely that the Sumatras and other families migrated from Loon at the turn of the century and arrived in Biabas where a small community already existed. Eskaya literature is evidently post-hispanic since the stories mention events that occurred after Spanish contact. Eskaya language is also probably post-hispanic (see link to document above). Eskaya culture, meanwhile, contains elements that are both pre- and post-hispanic. There are a few examples of these kinds of postcolonial communities and languages elsewhere in the world but they are relatively rare. I strongly believe that the study of Eskaya culture ought not to be trapped in a cycle of 'proving' or 'debunking'. This is a misguided and unproductive distraction. A century from now Boholanos will be wondering why they didn't pay more attention to this distinct cultural community and their literary/linguistic tradition.

hofelina

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #11 on: March 19, 2009, 06:47:43 AM »
A century from now Boholanos will be wondering why they didn't pay more attention to this distinct cultural community and their literary/linguistic tradition.
This last sentence is hanging in my mind. This is a negative premonition. What are we going to do so as to preserve the Eskaya culture?

-<GEC348>-

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #12 on: March 19, 2009, 08:11:05 AM »


Preserve the Eskaya culture?

Let's become Eskayas*  ;D


Where do I sign up?


*Integration into the Eskaya community and adopting their norms and ways.


renegade

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #13 on: March 19, 2009, 08:50:25 AM »
eskaya?

mahal man ngadto?

di mudawat si phoebe ug mga pobres nawong.


padung pa ta musud, putbol na ta dayon
" everyday is funfilled day."

renegade

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #14 on: March 19, 2009, 09:07:42 AM »
Bitaw, joking aside,   we should preserve eskaya.

kinsa may muhimo? alangan ug lain nya taga laing lugar.  na man sila diris atoa.  i remeber " pipol ", ces drilon's crew went there and made a documentary.  try to ask jhing lugod of Lugod's rent a Car.  he was with them.

fdaray

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #15 on: March 19, 2009, 10:07:57 AM »

MORE ABOUT ESKAYA TRIBE

Eskaya: A History

The history of the Eskaya tribe is largely based on “old books” whose contents have been handed down from generation to generation. The books cover legends which some historians deemed as only myths. However, one can get a clear picture of where the tribe originates from these stories.

One book relates of how the group first arrived in Bohol from Sumatra. Their first leader, Dangko, had twelve children who settled near Antequera before moving east.

Stories handed down thru the years to community members living in Taytay (Duero) relates that the group first settled in Talibon town then transferred to Loon and settled in the mountainous barangays of Campatud and Cansubayon. After some time, the tribe decided to settle at the lowlands of Antequera at a place called Canlaas Panas. Record shows that they lived there from the year 600 A.D. up to the year 1600 A.D. of the Spanish Regime. They established Barangay Viga as their capital which stretches to the riverside valleys beyond the present day Abatan Bridge.

Viga is the kingdom of Haring Lomod, otherwise known as Tamblot, who is one of the most legendary Eskaya leaders. He is both a datu and the high priest whose rank is equal to that of the present Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

Tamblot’s reign started in early 1600 A.D. and he was the first Boholano to having raised arms against the Spanish conquistadors. The uprising occurred in 1621. The feud between him and the Spaniards started with the white silver church bell, called by the local folks as “Lingganayng Ugis”.

Evidences of Eskaya Presence in Antequera
Traces of Eskaya writings were found some 400 meters inside the Inambacan Cave of Villa Aurora in Antequera. Some of the writings were already covered with stalagmites measuring about 13 inches high. Geological studies prove that stalagmites grow an inch in one hundred years so it means that the writings were there for 1300 years and that would refer to the period in the late 600 A.D. Engr. Jes B. Tirol of the University of Bohol found these writings inside the cave. The rocky remains of the Viga church still exist today and look like a crudely made temple.

Later Eskaya
As far as documented evidence is concerned, genealogies attest that many of the predecessors of those living in the communities today originally came from the town of Loon, on Bohol’s western coast.

The settlement at Biabas, Guindulman, per Eskaya books, was established in the 19th century; and that Mariano Datahan, the founder of the settlement, arrived at the site at the turn of the 19th century from Loon. The Philippine Independent Church in Biabas was established in 1902.

There are other records or papers giving evidence of the group’s presence in Philippine history. One is a letter from Datahan addressed to President Manuel Quezon in 1937 and another is a recorded meeting in 1944 between Datahan and the resistance hero Col. Esteban Bernido in Biabas. Datahan died in the year 1949.

In 1951, Fabian Baja founded a settlement at Taytay, under the municipality of Duero. This was done allegedly under the instructions of Datahan. Through the years the group spread to Canta-ub (Sierra Bullones), Lundag (Pilar), Tambongan, Cadapdapan (Candijay), and Fatimah.

The Eskaya tribe at Biabas, Guindulman was “discovered” in the early 1980’s, although the settlement dated back prior to World War II. The group came to public attention when government agricultural advisers toured the province to introduce the Green Revolution policies. Their unique culture, tradition, and language came to the fore and caught the attention of local journalists and researchers
 
 

renegade

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #16 on: March 19, 2009, 11:57:00 AM »
this is why i love TB.  very resourceful ang mga members.

fdaray

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #17 on: March 19, 2009, 12:17:31 PM »
Sa akong na research, 677 AD niabot ang Eskaya tribe dinhi sa Bohol. Sila misanay hangtod midaghan. KIta karon  nga mga Bol-anon gikan diay sa Eskaya tribe.

Before 667 AD, naa na bay mga tao sa Bohol? Kadtong mga tao sa Bohol before
667 AD mao to silay mga "indigineous people". Ang Eskaya migrants people gikan
sa Sumatra.

perezkelly

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #18 on: March 23, 2009, 12:49:01 PM »
The problem with research via Google is that you end up catching everything, regardless of whether its true or false. Eg, one of the paras pasted above was written by me but has been copied and pasted all over the place and mixed in with information which is false.
These various dates (AD 677, AD 667 etc) come from the folkloric Eskaya tradition. They are important in Eskaya stories but not historically verifiable. The Antequera cave findings are not archeologically verifiable and the out-of-Sumatra theory has been falsified linguistically. When Googling Eskaya info, ask yourself:
 - Has this material been published in a peer-reviewed publication (ie, tested and approved by experts in that field)?
- Does the material cite its sources, and do those cited sources also cite their sources?
If the answer is 'no' to either of those, then it's unproductive to continue circulating that material.
As to the occupation of Bohol prior to AD 667, visit the Bohol Provincial Museum or read the excellent articles published in Tubod, available at the Bohol Provincial Library.


perezkelly

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Re: The Eskaya Tribe, a Fact
« Reply #19 on: March 24, 2009, 05:56:27 AM »


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